Category Archives: SCD

How Do You Eat That Vegetable? Parsnips.

Vegetable Series: When we changed our eating two years ago, I resolved to be afraid of no vegetable. Not knowing how to cut it or cook it was NOT going to keep it out of my cart. For a long time I’ve wanted to do a series of posts on all the different vegetables we have tried and what we do to the poor things. May you, too, vow to try any and all vegetables in your supermarket! Go get ’em, tiger.

 

“I LOVE those French fries!”Parsnips in basket edited

Have you tried parsnips?  Have your kids tried parsnips?  Do you or your family like parsnips?  Do you have a great parsnip recipe?  Do you know what parsnips are?

For my kids, I often find keeping dishes simple and flavors not too complex suits their taste buds more at this young age.  Plus, when you’re eating a whole, real foods lifestyle, faster and easier is much better for the cook, too!  We made parsnip “fries” to prepare for this post.  When my husband and kids came into the kitchen, I was frantically grabbing fries to stash and hide behind the coffeemaker so I wouldn’t have to make more to photograph!  I was glad the “fries” were a gastronomical success!  M5 year-old daughter said, “I love those French fries, Mom.”

This wasn’t always the case.

If you can do it with a potato…

As I’ve pointed out, we’ve only been eating this way for about two years now.  The word out there is:  If you can do it with a potato…you can do it with a parsnip.  So I tried parsnips in soups, roasts, mashes, and casseroles.  (“What is this, Mom?”  As in, they didn’t approve.)  I even made parsnip fries, which you could tell they didn’t mind, but they didn’t really eat many.  My kids were just too close to their potatoes.  Near removal of the potato and addition of parsnips on occasion, and my kids can now tally parsnips to the growing list of vegetables they’ll eat!

What am I saying?  If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again!  Kids need repetitive exposure and a great example.  Persist in a vegetable-rich diet for your family.  Understand it may take years.  Accept it and don’t give up.  In the meantime, just be prepared to eat a lot of vegetables yourself…

What is a Parsnip?

It is a root vegetable which looks like a fat, white carrot (one of its relatives).

  • Commonly cultivated and eaten in Europe before the potato was introduced.  (Do you know where potatoes originated from?  The mountains of Peru.)
  • Usually thought of as a fall and winter vegetable, but since it stores so well, it is available year round.
  • It is a starchy vegetable and has a sweet, nutty taste and a potato-like texture when cooked.
  • Frost and refrigeration bring about a sweeter taste.
  • Neck to neck, there’s not much nutritional difference between a parsnip and potato.  Parsnips have a little more calcium and a little more fiber.  Parsnips are a little (not much) lower on the “net carb” ladder than a potato.  The only real difference I can think of is that a potato belongs to the family called a “nightshade” and a parsnip doesn’t.  (Nightshades are excluded for people who follow an anti-inflammatory diet because some minor research indicates they may be detrimental to the lining of the GI tract, may increase the body’s production of inflammation-producing chemicals, and increase arthritis and achiness in people.  So someone on an anti-inflammatory diet could easily replace the potato with the parsnip.)

Parsnips are nice because they keep in your refrigerator forever.  I choose them and store them like I do carrots.  Often they come coated in a waxy material, so I always peel my parsnips with a potato peeler before using them to get this strange stuff off.

Then, do what you’d do to a potato!  Here’s one to try, but don’t stop here!

Parsnip Fries

Parsnips, washed and peeled
Olive oil
Salt as desired
Garlic powder and onion powder if desired

Preheat oven to 375-400 degrees Fahrenheit (191-204 degrees Celsius).  Cut the parsnips so that they resemble French fries.  Toss in just enough olive oil to lightly coat.  Sprinkle with salt and other seasonings.  Lay each cut fry on a baking sheet so that the fries have space between them.  You may need to use two baking sheets if you’re making a lot.  (If you get them too close together, they steam each other and get soggy rather than crispy.  Uck.)

Baking times seem to vary immensely.  The best idea is to just watch.  I start by baking in the preheated oven for about 10-15 minutes (but still watching them), and then I take them out and flip the fries.  I bake for another 10-15 minutes or so.  The goal is a fairly golden brown fry that isn’t burnt and isn’t soggy.  Sometimes I remove the ones that look done before the rest.Taste before serving and add more seasoning as desired.  Serve hot.  Nobody likes cold fries of any kind.  Do they?

Parsnip fries edited Cutting parsnips edit

 

Family “gustar” report: 5/5 ate these fries all gone. Will definitely try to include these more in our repertoire.

Note: Parsnips are discouraged for the GAPS/SCD diets.

So what vegetables are YOU all eating?  ~~Terri

Other vegetables in The Vegetable Series:  Rutabagas, artichokes, kohlrabi, and jicama.

Iodine Post 4, Pregnancy

Personal Anecdote

One of the most serious effects of iodine deficiency is damage to a fetus.  (Echo:  Damage to a fetus…damage to a fetus…damage to a fetus.)  Iodine deficiency wasn’t on my radar when I conceived last fall!  I had had no dairy, no eggs, and no iodized salt for at least a year and a half, and I was taking no iodine supplementation, prenatal vitamin or otherwise.  So I have to wonder about my iodine status prior to pregnancy and in early pregnancy.  Early in pregnancy, I was too sick to tolerate a prenatal vitamin, and both my doc and I agreed that all I probably really needed to be sure to choke down was a folic acid supplement to prevent neural tube defects.   (Strangely enough with the food and smell aversions, in my first trimester, I could not get over the urge to eat any and all kinds of seafood, which is a good source of iodine:  sardines, oysters, mussels, clams, mahi mahi, tuna, shrimp, scallops, soft-shelled crabs, Nori, and dulse–you name it.  I threw seafood cautions to the wind and gobbled that stuff down, since nothing else sounded good!  Anecdotal but interesting.)

I wish someone would have told me that my best sources of iodine had all been removed from my diet, and even with them included, I would still have been at risk for iodine deficiency.  So if you’re dairy-free, skipping iodized salt, vegan, intolerant or allergic to eggs, autoimmune Paleo, or follow a crazy diet (I can say that because I follow a crazy diet.), please just make it a point to make sure you’re getting sufficient iodine.  And as always, don’t use anything on my blog as medical advice.

Not good.  Statistics show that pregnant women’s iodine intake and levels are not sufficient and are continuing to decrease.

In the United States, there is a periodic survey which evaluates how our iodine intake is doing, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).  NHANES has revealed that urinary iodine levels for pregnant and non-pregnant women in the United States have dropped significantly since the early 1970s.  Adequate urinary iodine levels for pregnant women should be 150-249 micrograms/L (based on the World Health Organization standards).  The United States has hovered around and then dropped below this point:

  • 1971-1974:  327 micrograms/L
  • 1988-1998:  141 micrograms/L
  • 2001-2006:  153 micrograms/L
  • 2005-2010:  129 micrograms/L  (Goal is greater than 150 micrograms/L) (1, 2)

In the most recent survey, some regions such as California and Pennsylvania were alarmingly low, 105 and 125, respectively.  And this doesn’t even take into account the interfering factors of halides in our food and environment which interfere despite levels of iodine!

So what does low iodine mean for pregnant women and their babies?  (Not good.)

IodineIodine deficiency can lead to what is called “reproductive failure” in the female, which simply refers to repeated miscarriages and increased stillbirths.  The more severe the iodine deficiency, the more the risk increases.  One study showed that the frequency of reproductive failure was directly proportional to the severity of the iodine deficiency.  Women who had iodine deficiency had twice the risk of reproductive failure.  (There are many causes of “reproductive failure” besides iodine deficiency.  Other nutritional factors such as selenium deficiency could also be responsible for reproductive failure.  And aside from nutritional factors, there are many other causes, as well.  So I am not saying, “Iodine is it.”  Please don’t think that.) (3)

Known iodine deficiency effects on the fetus are numerous and include:

  • Increased miscarriages (loss before 28 weeks of pregnancy)
  • Increased stillbirths (loss after 28 weeks of pregnancy)
  • Increased premature births
  • Congenital anomalies (birth defects)
  • Increased perinatal morbidity and mortality (increased bad outcomes and death occurring shortly before or after delivery)
  • Cretinism (mental retardation with changes in stature, hearing–often a high tone defect, and sometimes the inability to use arms/legs due to severe rigidity)
  • Goiters in newborns
  • Hypothyroidism in newborns
  • Mental retardation
  • Lower IQ (3, 4, 5)

Medical literature supporting iodine’s role in producing a healthy, in utero fetus and subsequent neonate is NOT hard to find!

All degrees of iodine deficiency…affect thyroid function of the mother and the neonate as well as the mental development of the child. The damage increases with the degree of the deficiency…

Iodine deficiency results in a global loss of 10–15 IQ points at a population level and constitutes the world’s greatest single cause of preventable brain damage and mental retardation. (5)

When a mom is iodine deficient, iodine deficiency is passed on to the developing fetus who has NO way of getting iodine or thyroid hormone except through the mom.  You are it, Mama.

When a woman becomes pregnant, her baby absolutely relies on the mom’s thyroid hormone, which requires iodine to be made.  The baby cannot make its own thyroid hormone until later in the pregnancy, and even then, it still needs iodine provided by mom as the raw material for its own thyroid hormone production. 

Iodine is 100% necessary for the production of thyroid hormone, and if it is not sufficient, then the mother and baby will be exposed to hypothyroidism (lack of thyroid hormone).  Thyroid hormone is necessary for the function of all cells and is critically important for brain development, especially in a fetus and newborn.  Thyroid hormone helps to make sure that the fetus’s cells grow, develop, differentiate, and express the right genes.

Most health organizations recommend about 150 micrograms of iodine daily for non-pregnant adults, but iodine needs increase when a woman becomes pregnant.   To make more thyroid hormone to cover the baby’s needs, the woman needs more iodine.  She also needs more iodine because during pregnancy, the blood filtration through the kidneys increases and extra iodine is lost in the urine during pregnancy.

It doesn’t end with pregnancy, either.  Nursing mothers need more iodine because the iodine is transferred to the baby Saltby her milk.  The baby still needs iodine. (6)

The developing brain of the fetus is probably the most vulnerable target organ for iodine deficiency.

First Growth Spurt of the Brain

The developing baby’s brain has two major “growth spurts.”  The first one is at 12-20 weeks (months 3-5).  During this first one, the brain cells (neurons) are rapidly multiplying, moving to their correct places, and organizing themselves appropriately.  Studies indicate that iodine repletion should occur by three months of pregnancy to prevent cretinism (severe mental retardation, deaf/mute, and effects on the arms and legs).  Most of us in developed countries probably won’t fall into iodine deficiency enough that cretinism would develop, but I think it may be revealing in other neurological conditions as well, that getting the iodine levels back up in the first trimester is probably optimal.  However, even if the first trimester is missed, iodine supplementation still shows beneficial effects in pregnant women and their fetuses.

Second Spurt

The second spurt of brain growth occurs in the third trimester and doesn’t finish until the child is 2-3 years old!  This spurt allows the cells that support the brain’s neurons (knows as “glial cells”) to multiply, move to their appropriate places, and to become coated with myelin.  By the time of the second spurt, the baby has a functioning thyroid, so it doesn’t rely on mom for thyroid hormone anymore, per se, but it relies on mom for its source of iodine.  If mom is not eating enough iodine, baby still can’t make thyroid hormone for itself and its brain.  If mom didn’t get enough iodine in the first trimester, damages can still be minimized.

“Correction of iodine deficiency during the second trimester reduced neurological abnormalities, increased head growth, and improved the development quotient in a severely iodine-deficient area of western China. Correction at a later period did not improve neurological development, although there was a trend toward slightly larger mean head circumference and higher development quotients than in untreated individuals. ”  (6)

There is a spectrum of how insufficient iodine levels affects the fetus.

“Mental retardation from iodine deficiency is not limited to the extreme form of cretinism, but instead extends over a broad continuum to mild intellectual blunting that may go unrecognized unless carefully investigated. Thus, iodine deficiency puts virtually everyone in the affected population at some risk for brain damage. Many studies have compared performance of iodine-deficient children with that of iodine-sufficient peers on standardized intelligence tests…iodine deficiency lowered a mean intelligence quotient by 13.5 points. In view of the many people living in iodine-deficient areas and their vulnerability to its effects on the developing brain, these numbers indicate a staggering public health problem. This and neonatal mortality, rather than goiter, have become the main reasons for advocating urgent correction of iodine deficiency.”  (6)

Severe iodine deficiency and cretinism:  The most notable and sad outcome of iodine deficiency, as it is completely preventable, is cretinism.  I have read that early Alpine explorers would come across entire villages of “cretins” isolated in the mountains.  These local pockets of population lived off of iodine deficient land, and it wasn’t until food started coming in from elsewhere and iodine supplementation was implemented in the 1900s that the incidence of cretinism was reversed.  At the time, doctors and people in general felt it was something “in the air”  or “in the water” of the valleys or perhaps a “genetic fault.”  Cretinism presents with:

  • Short stature
  • Mental retardation
  • Deaf and mute
  • Spasticity of limbs (the arms and legs can draw up tight and not extend properly)

Mild iodine deficiency:   Mild iodine deficiency effects are more pervasive and not as concrete to pinpoint.  Children from low iodine pregnancies have been found to have:

  • Lower IQs
  • ADHD
  • Elevated hearing thresholds/ hearing loss (4, 7, 8)

Dr. Jerome Paulson, chairman of the American Academy of Pediatrics council on environmental health says this in May, 2014 for NBC News:

“The brain development issues are very subtle and are not likely to be noticed in an individual child.  It’s an issue for society as a whole when you have a large number of children who are not reaching their full potential.” (9)

If iodine deficiency is increasing in our pregnant women, wouldn’t congenital hypothyroidism in the newborn be increasing?

So as I typed this post up, I thought, well–if iodine deficiency is creeping up among our pregnant patients, then our babies should have a higher risk of hypothyroidism (low functioning thyroid).  In fact, a month ago, my hairdresser was telling me about her good friend whose baby just wasn’t very active.  They checked, and it was hypothyroidism.  I’ve never really looked at or been notified about increases in newborn hypothyroidism (congenital hypothyroidism) in any of the journals I subscribe to, so I Googled it.  (Because low thyroid function is SO detrimental to a newborn’s health and brain function, one of the tests mandated by every state in the newborn screening poke includes a test for congenital hypothyroidism.)  Sure enough, there is a rise of congenital hypothyroidism.  I cannot and will not say it is due to maternal iodine insufficiency because I think most health problems are usually caused by a combination of factors, but I certainly am suspicious about iodine deficiency’s role in this.  In Krakow, Poland, before the introduction of iodized salt, 1 in 3920 newborns had transient hypothyroidism, and after the introduction of iodized salt, the rate dropped to 1 in 48,474. (2)  Experts are also considering the roles of perchlorate (a toxic byproduct of rocket fuel and fireworks production) exposure, as these seem to be contaminating our environment and entering our bodies, interfering with thyroid use of iodine, and whether use of iodine-containing disinfectants at the time of birth could contribute. (2, 10)

So why don’t we just put our pregnant women on iodine and crank her up good?

Case studies show reports of hypothyroidism in significantly iodine supplementing moms:  So you’re a natural person.  You’re not afraid of supplements.  You’re pregnant, and you think you’re going to run out and start loading up on iodine.  Not so fast.  There have been cases of congenital transient hypothyroidism in newborns from maternal iodine supplementations, at doses of about 12.5 mg.  Whoa.  I would never want a baby to have hypothyroidism from over-supplementation!  On the other hand, I think this area should be explored better.  Was the mom supplementing other important nutrients needed along with iodine?  How transient would the hypothyroidism have been in the baby?  If the mom had kept supplementing, would the thyroid disorder have stabilized naturally?  But we don’t know the answers to these nebulous questions, and so I accept that too high of a dose of iodine in pregnancy may be dangerous to the baby as well!  On iodine deficiency in pregnancy, it is probably best for the iodine naïve woman to err on the side of recommended amounts. (11)

Prenatal vitamins:  Slowly, recommendations are moving toward making sure women get iodine in their prenatal vitamins, and word is getting out there. NBC News had a little blurb on their site about it in May 2014. But, in my opinion, the information still is not out there to women OR their obstetricians.  I just don’t think obstetricians are aware of iodine deficiency numbers in pregnant women, and I would venture to say many (most?) obstetricians don’t look at the prenatal vitamins their patients take!  Only about 50% of prenatal vitamins in the United States contain iodine!  And if they do contain iodine, the iodine content may vary by up to 50% of what is on the label. (1, 12)  The American Thyroid Association recommends that all prenatal vitamins contain iodine, 150 micrograms. (13)

Best to get iodine optimized BEFORE pregnancy:  This is good, but I feel iodine sufficiency needs to be in place WELL BEFORE pregnancy!  If our pregnant women are low, that must mean that our child-bearing population is riding completely on the edge.  In addition, it may be that some of the ill effects seen with iodine supplementation have to do with the iodine status of a person in the long-run!  So the more iodine sufficient a person is their whole life, the more they tolerate extra supplementation without conversion to hypothyroidism.  Dr. Elizabeth Pearce et al report on a study from Sicily which shows that moms who re-introduce iodized salt in the first trimester after having been off of it for two years have markedly increased risk of mom being hypothyroid!  However, in patients who had used iodized salt routinely prior to pregnancy for two years, the risk of hypothyroidism in mom was much less (although not absent). (14)

Conclusion:

Iodine deficiency is absolutely a problem in many pregnant women.  Iodine should optimally be sufficient in the first trimester, and unfortunately this is often a period when women are not aware that they are pregnant or they are too ill to take a prenatal vitamin with iodine or eat iodine containing foods.  I think that brings us back to the idea that we are functioning, many of us as a population, on a near empty tank of iodine to begin with.  Adequate iodine intake should occur BEFORE pregnancy.  I hope you are taking note and continue to take inventory of you and your family members’ sources of iodine.  Eventually, after I summarize why in the heck we need iodine, I will do a more detailed post on iodine content of foods.  You can see some basic summaries of this in my previous iodine posts.

I would like to tell you that your doctor, especially your obstetrician, is up on this.  And maybe they are.  But I have a sinking feeling most are not.  If getting pregnant is possible for you, it is best to start thinking about iodine intake today.

Sorry for the long post.  Hope those interested found some tidbits to ponder.

~~Terri

Citations:  

1.  Kathleen L. Caldwell, Yi Pan, Mary E. Mortensen, Amir Makhmudov, Lori Merrill, and John Moye.  Iodine Status in Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study and in U.S. Women (15–44 Years), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010.  Thyroid.  Volume 23, Number 8, 2013.  (Link to full text)

2.  John S Parks, Michelle Linn, et al.  The Impact of Transient Hypothyroidism on the Increasing Rate of Congenital Hypothyroidism in the United States.  PEDIATRICS Vol. 125 No. Supplement 2 May 1, 2010. pp. S54 -S63.  (Link to full text)

3.  Dillon, J. C. and Milliez, J. (2000), Reproductive failure in women living in iodine deficient areas of West Africa. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 107: 631–636. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2000.tb13305.x.  (Link to full text)

4.  Cresswell Eastman and Michael Zimmerman.  Chapter 20:  The Iodine Deficiency Disorders.  Thyroid Disease Manager.  Online.  Updated February 12, 2014.  (Link to online text.)

5.  F Delange.  Editorial:  Iodine deficiency as a cause of brain damage.  Postgrad Med J 2001;77:217-220 doi:10.1136/pmj.77.906.217 (Link to full text)

6.  John Dunn and Francoise Delange.  Damaged Reproduction: The Most Important Consequence of Iodine Deficiency.  The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2001 86:6, 2360-2363.  (Link to full text)

7.  DeLong GR, Stanbury JB, Fierro-Benitez R. Neurological signs in congenital iodine-deficiency disorder (endemic cretinism).   Dev Med Child Neurol. 1985 Jun;27(3):317-24.  (Link to abstract)

8.  Alida Melse-Boonstra, Ian Mackenzie.  Iodine deficiency, thyroid function and hearing deficit: a review.  Nutrition Research Reviews.  2013 Dec;26(2):110-7. doi: 10.1017/S0954422413000061. Epub 2013 Jun 12.  (Link to abstract)

9.  NBC News Online.  Link:  http://www.nbcnews.com/health/womens-health/pregnant-women-need-iodine-supplement-doctors-say-n113326

10.  Richard S. Olney, MD, MPHa, Scott D. Grosse, PhDa, Robert F. Vogt Jr, PhDb.  Prevalence of Congenital Hypothyroidism—Current Trends and Future Directions: Workshop Summary.  PEDIATRICS Vol. 125 No. Supplement 2 May 1, 2010
pp. S31 -S36 .  (doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-1975C)  (Link to full text)

11.  Kara Connelly, MD, Bruce Boston, MD, Elizabeth Pearce, MD, David Sesser, David Snyder, MD, Lewis Braverman, MD, Sam Pino, Stephen LaFranchi, MD.  Congenital Hypothyroidism Caused by Excess Prenatal Maternal Iodine Ingestion.  The Journal of Pediatrics.
Volume 161, Issue 4 , Pages 760-762, October 2012.  (Link to full text)

12.  Angela M. Leung, M.D.,  Elizabeth N. Pearce, M.D., Lewis E. Braverman, M.D.  CORRESPONDENCE:  Iodine Content of Prenatal Multivitamins in the United States.  N Engl J Med 2009; 360:939-940February 26, 2009DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc0807851.  (Link to full text)

13.  Public Health Committee of the American Thyroid Association, Becker DV, Braverman LE, Delange F, Dunn JT, Franklyn JA, Hollowell JG, Lamm SH, Mitchell ML, Pearce E, Robbins J, Rovet JF.  Iodine supplementation for pregnancy and lactation-United States and Canada: recommendations of the American Thyroid Association.  Thyroid. 2006 Oct;16(10):949-51.

14.  Elizabeth N. Pearce.  Iodine in Pregnancy: Is Salt Iodization Enough?  J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Jul 2008; 93(7): 2466–2468.  doi: 10.1210/jc.2008-1009.  PMCID: PMC2453047  (Link to full text)

Great overview of hypothyroidism in pregnancy adn a section on iodine:

http://elib.fk.uwks.ac.id/asset/archieve/matkul/Biokimia/The%20Regulation%20of%20Thyroid%20Function%20in%20Pregnancy.pdf

Iodine Post 2, More Iodine Introduction and Review to Lead Up to Iodine in Fertility

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Today continues on in the long, arduous, controversial trek that is iodine.  For this post, I had wanted to take a critical look at how iodine affects fertility, both male and female, and pregnancy.  The post was too long, so I am splitting it into three parts.

  1. More iodine introduction and review today because I want to stress again how iodine deficiency may be present despite the common medical community saying it isn’t in industrialized/developed countries.
  2. Iodine and pre-conceptual/conceptual fertility tomorrow or so, as time allows me to get my citations in somewhat presentable documentation form.
  3. Iodine and post-conceptual fertility/pregnancy the post or so after that.  (Notice the “or so?”  Moms always learn to be wishy-washy on timing of events, right?)

I spent a long time searching about fertility and iodine, and thus my absence in publishing blog posts lately.  One article and question always leads to another and another.  Despite looking high and low, I will make no great conclusions regarding iodine and fertility.  Sorry.  Hypothyroidism (low functioning thyroid gland) and hyperthyroidism (over-functioning thyroid gland)  clearly do play a role in male and female fertility, but connecting the dots to iodine has not been performed much yet in research studies.  However, we DO know that iodine deficiency is one cause of hypothyroidism.

My take, off the  cuff, without sources and science, regarding iodine

Although we absolutely need iodine, our bodies seem to become adjusted to regulating our thyroids and bodily systems based on how much iodine we give them.  Our bodies make do, down-regulating this pathway and up-regulating that pathway, until a critical iodine low point at which the system fails and you see the serious consequences of overt hypothyroidism and offspring with severe deficits, such as mental retardation.  Before that severe iodine deficiency crisis hits, there are varying degrees of “normal” a body can manage to function at in different people with the iodine amount provided–which probably aren’t really “completely normal” functioning states but good enough to sustain life and reproduction with little noticeable compromise.

To significantly replace iodine at this point, when a person is “low in iodine” but functioning “okay” (where the body has managed to find a nice “homeostasis” regarding iodine use), can do one of three things.  It can:

  • 1)  Benefit the body without negative thyroid side effects (the goal and the most common outcome).
  • 2)  Bring about a hypothyroidism.
  • 3)  Bring about a hyperthyroidism.

If a person is already hypothyroid from low iodine intake, even if mildly so, hopefully iodine replacement will allow the body to start optimizing its iodine use for improved thyroid function and the functioning of other tissues that use iodine, such as the ovaries, breasts and prostate without any ill effects.  In fact, most people do fall under the umbrella of tolerating iodine supplementation just fine and benefitting from it, but doctors worry a lot about iodine bringing about hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in what were observably “normal” people.  And this does happen.  Cruise the internet for research studies and iodine supplementation anecdotes, and you’ll see good and bad outcomes.  (To optimize replacement with the least amount of negative thyroid response, iodine supplementation needs to be taken along with some other important co-nutrients: selenium, vitamin C, and zinc.  This is a topic for another post.)  Iodine is a mixed, controversial medicine bag.

As an obvious reminder, don’t use anything in my posts as medical advice, only use it for introductory informational purposes.  The internet is a not a doctor.  And there can be huge risks from implementing what you find on internet health sites.  Walk cautiously, and find a healthcare person you DO trust to talk things over with.

Let’s remind ourselves of why a person would be iodine deficient from the last Iodine Post and then eventually move on to what I could find regarding iodine on male and female pre-conceptual/conceptual fertility tomorrow…

Iodine deficiency erratically riddles the population of developed societies.  Why?  Who is at risk?  Am I?  Are you?  Why do they say we are “iodine sufficient” if we are not?

Why would well-fed people be iodine deficient?

(I am omitting the discussion of goitrogenic foods and halides, which put people at risk for iodine deficiency disorders, Grand Caymandespite adequate iodine intakes.  I will discuss those in later posts.  It is an important topic which needs its own post.)

Real food iodine sources primarily include dairy, eggs, ocean seafood, and seaweed.  Iodine can be a dietary toughie to get because levels of iodine fluctuate greatly EVEN IN THESE REAL FOODS.  I would like to contrast this with nutrients such as B vitamins and magnesium, which although they are diminished in our modern food sources, they are abundant in MANY, diverse food sources which people eat, especially real food advocates.

  • Milk iodine content will vary depending on if the grass cows eat has iodine (Are they grazing on coastal pastures or iodine-deficient Great Plains grass?), if cows are supplemented with iodine-containing feed, and if iodine containing washes are used prior to milking.
  • Egg iodine content will vary depending on if the chickens are fed iodine supplemented chicken feed or not.
  • Vegetables and plants have no need for iodine, although they will take it up from the soil, passing it graciously on to us.  Most soils away from the ocean coasts are iodine deficient (iodine is most abundant in ocean water, which falls on the land in the form of the rain cycle, replenishing coastal soil and plants with iodine from the sea), so eating “locally grown” food from iodine deficient soils will provide less iodine content.
  • Meat iodine content will vary, again based on what animals are fed or where they are grazing.
  • Sea salt mostly has only trace amounts of iodine.
  • Bread products use bromine rather than iodine-type dough conditioners, like they used to.  (Heck, homemade bread doesn’t use either!)  I realize to some readers that bread is a processed food, but it is eaten by most people.  And the replacement of iodine-based dough conditioners for bromine-based dough conditioners, which interfere with iodine utilization in the body, plays a significant role in iodine deficiency disorders and the decreasing amount of iodine intake in the United States.
  • Seafood and seaweed’s iodine content vary by the kind of seafood but is usually a lot more predictable than the foods listed above.

Who is at risk?  Examples.

If you stop and think, you can easily identify why people would be iodine deficient:

Case 1:  An American woman who is dairy-free, doesn’t like seafood, and who has switched over to non-iodized sea salt because she thinks it tastes better.  She still eats bread, but her bread has no iodine, and in fact does use a bromine derivative for dough conditioning.  Hopefully she eats eggs and lives on the coast.

Case 2:   An American college student who eats only bagels, cereal bars, or Pop Tarts for breakfast, sandwiches with chips at Subway for lunch, and some freezer-kits for supper.  All these processed foods may not provide enough iodine, since non-iodized salt is used.  Hopefully, some iodine is sneaking in through the cheese and eggs used in the products chosen.  But we don’t know.

Case 3: A family in Australia who eats strictly organic, without realizing that studies show that organic dairy has less iodine, organic bread in Australia has no iodine, and their fruits and vegetables are grown in an iodine depleted area.  They worry about mercury and radiation in seafood, and one child has an egg intolerance/allergy, so they shy away from eggs.  I’m not sure where this family gets enough iodine.  Maybe they take a multivitamin.

Case 4:  A 67-year-old man who has lactose intolerance, who shuns salt because of blood pressure issues, who only eats the egg whites (not high in iodine) due to cholesterol concerns, and whose wife doesn’t like fish at all.

Case 5:  A vegan who eats no dairy, no eggs, no meats, and no seafood.  She could eat seaweed but doesn’t like the taste.  Iodine intake is not lookin’ good.

Why do they say we are “sufficient” if we are not?

(Emphasized phrases are bolded by me.)

From The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 2010:

The WHO [World Health Organization] prevalence data emphasise that iodine deficiency is not only a problem of developing countries; the highest prevalence of iodine deficiency is in Europe (52.0%), where the household coverage with iodised salt is the lowest (approximately 25%), and many of these countries have weak or nonexistent control programmes for iodine-deficiency disorders. (1)

and The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 2009:

IDD [iodine deficiency disorder] can occur in iodine replete-environments. A high index of suspicion is needed to recognize these cases. It is pertinent that the correct diagnosis be made to avoid unwarranted life-long thyroxine therapy in patients presenting with goiter and hypothyroidism, which is easily treatable with iodized salt. These cases underscore the need for considering iodine deficiency in the etiologic diagnosis of goiter and hypothyroidism, even in iodine sufficient regions. (2)

From my research, I am concluding that iodine deficiency is insidiously surfacing in individuals and small subpopulations (for example, pregnant women, vegans, or those with multiple food intolerances) in many developed countries, probably riddling whole populations like a shot-gun due to unique dietary patterns and habits of individuals and their families.  How is it that the medical community, chomping on their brominated office donuts, sipping their Coffee-Mate tainted coffee, and brushing their teeth with fluoridated Crest, may be slow to recognize this?  (Yes.  This was me.)  Well, when the scientific community prudently checks to see if an area is getting enough iodine, they look at levels as a POPULATION, not in individuals.  To determine the iodine sufficiency of an area, “on-the-spot” urines are checked for iodine in a sample of hopefully “representative” people.

Swimming with sting raysSpot checks of urine for iodine content are known to be erratic and insensitive, so they can’t be used to determine true iodine status of an individual, but when they are collected and pooled together an overall snapshot of the area (or population) in question can be gained.  The median (That’s the number that occurs in “the middle” when all the result values are lined up from smallest to greatest–it is not the average/mean.) is then used to determine if the tested population is iodine sufficient.

The median value determined can still “hide” a significant amount of the population who may be deficient.  What values are on the low side of the median?  How low do they go?  If most people in the community who are checked use iodized salt and drink milk, well, those folks are probably iodine sufficient and pooled results tell the researchers that “all is well.”  However, if you and your family don’t drink milk and skip iodized salt, plus you all hate seafood, your low urinary iodine spot check will be lost on the low side of the median.  You’ll be told your community or population is iodine sufficient, and you won’t change a thing you eat.  Iodine deficiency affects us as individuals, but unfortunately, iodine evaluations are made based on populations.  True, accurate testing in individuals is pretty intensive.  It requires a 24-hour urine collection, and so just getting “eyeball” spot urine results and pooling them together makes the most sense for determining a society’s iodine status. (3)

Bottom Line

So as I did in the last post, I encourage you to take inventory of your family’s commonly eaten foods to see if you may be at risk for mild iodine deficiency despite your government and medical societies saying: “There is no concern of iodine deficiency in the United States (or Australia, France, etc.).”  I’ll bring a wealth of information eventually on iodine to the blog, but it takes me time.  Meanwhile, just explore your diets, and make sure you’re getting some foods which usually have decent sources of iodine.

Remember, food counts.  It really matters.  It matters for you and your family and their families to come.  Let’s move on to iodine and fertility tomorrow-ish…

Terri

Sources:

1.  Iodine deficiency in industrialized countries.   Zimmerman M.  Proceedings of the Nutrition Society:  Conference on ‘Over-and undernutrition:  challenges and approaches.    2010; 69: 133-143.  (Full text link.)

2.  Iodine Deficiency Disorders in the Iodine-Replete Environment.  Nyenwe EA and Dagogo-Jack S.  The American Journal of the Medical Sciences.   Jan 2009; 337 (1):  37-40.  (Full text link.)

3.  Estimation of iodine intake from various urinary iodine measurements in population studies.  Vejbjerg P, Knudsen N, et al.  Thyroid. Nov 2009; 19(11):1281-6.  (Abstract link.)

How Do You Eat That Vegetable? Kohlrabi.

 

Kohlrabi Collage

Vegetable Series: When we changed our eating two years ago, I resolved to be afraid of no vegetable. Not knowing how to cut it or cook it was NOT going to keep it out of my cart. For a long time I’ve wanted to do a series of posts on all the different vegetables we have tried and what we do to the poor things. May you, too, vow to try any and all vegetables in your supermarket! Go get ’em, tiger.

So far we’ve hit artichokes, rutabagas, and jicama in “The Vegetable Series,” all vegetables I only learned to make AFTER our family’s big eating change.  Today we’re going to add kohlrabi to the pot.  Kohlrabi takes me back to my high school, big-hair days.  I first (only) ate it at the house of one of my best friends, fresh garden-picked kohlrabi, sliced and eaten raw with a sprinkling of salt, with all her family gathered around the table.  Fun times.  Her mom was a cardiac nurse.  No wonder they ate kohlrabi.  But YOU don’t have to be a cardiac nurse or doctor to know the advantages of kohlrabi!  Uh, uh.

Terry Wahls’, MD reversed her debilitating multiple sclerosis using a vegetable dense (also meats, fruits, and other food components) diet.  One of her “rules” is that sulfur-rich vegetables must be eaten every day, about 3 cups worth.  Kohlrabi counts as a sulfur-rich vegetable, which helps regenerate a necessary pathway for dealing with “toxins”, called the glutathione pathway.  Sulfur-rich vegetables are also important for mitochondrial function, enzyme structure and function, and dealing with heavy metals.

Coal + Rob + Bee = Kohlrabi

Geesh.  Learning to pronounce the names of some of these vegetables requires more effort than learning to eat them.  So to start off, the vegetable called “kohlrabi” is pronounced to my ear like these three words combined:  coal + rob + bee.  Which is different from how I was pronouncing it before this post, a cross between what you get for Christmas if you’re naughty and a Jewish teacher of the Torah:  coal + rabbi.

A wee kohlrabi plant in our garden.  You can just see the bulb forming.  Darn rabbits about ate all the leaves until we sprayed them with red pepper mixed in water and put out cute little flower wind-catchers.

A wee kohlrabi plant in our garden. You can just see the bulb forming. Darn rabbits about ate all the leaves until we sprayed them with red pepper mixed in water and put out cute little flower wind-catchers.

Kohlrabi is a member of the same family as cabbage, Brussels, and cauliflower, the brassica (or cruciferous) family.  In fact, its name is German for cabbage (kohl) and turnip (rabi). (1)  (If you like languages, then think about “cole slaw.”)  Although it looks like a root vegetable (such as beets or carrots), it grows as a bulb above the ground.  I want to point out that cruciferous vegetables may interfere with thyroid hormone and iodine utility, however, some of my reading suggests that if you have enough co-nutrients, like selenium, this may not be a problem.  So hopefully I’ll get a post out about this as I work through the iodine posts.

Good.  Good.  How do you eat them?

Without a doubt, my favorite way to eat kohlrabi is raw.  It tastes like a radish without the spiciness and is every bit as crunchy.  However, like many, many vegetables, you can steam it, roast it, grate it for a slaw, stir-fry it, or throw it in a soup.  Fear should cause no restraint here.

How do you prepare them?

Chop off the greens.  If the greens are still fresh looking, you can sauté or steam them as you would spinach or any other green you like.  (If you’re not sure how to make greens, leave a question in the comments, and I can throw out some ideas.)  If they are not fresh looking, and you want to use them anyhow, then wash them up and toss them in some broth you may be making.  If you want, discard them.  I’ve started composting this year, so my wilted greens go here.  (I even Googled chemtrails a week or two ago.  I am so lost.  No going back now.  Please can I have my aluminum deodorant back yet?  🙂 )

Deeply peel the bulb.  Wash kohlrabi, and then start peeling.  There is a fibrous outer layer that you want to completely remove.  You can see the fibers running along the bulb, so it’s pretty apparent how deep to cut.  I use a paring knife to peel them, rather than a potato peeler, and I hack off the ends because they’re hard to peel.  Once it’s all peeled, slice it up and eat it with some salt.  Or cook it up however you choose.

Kohlrabi keeps well unpeeled in the fridge, although the leaves do not.  I’ve had mine in there before for a week or more (admittedly really a lot more).  The leaves only last a couple of days or so.

Do your kids like it?

Yes.  All three kids (girls aged 10, 8, and 5) liked kohlrabi raw.  My husband, one daughter, and I all liked the kohlrabi roasted.

Recipes ideas and recipes from other sites:

Roasted kohlrabi:  I have made roasted kohlrabi where I chopped the kohlrabi into small cubes, Cut kohlrabi for roastingadded chopped onion, salt, pepper, garlic powder, and olive oil to moisten, spread in a single layer on a cookie sheet, and roasted at 400 degrees Fahrenheit (204 degrees Celsius) until golden brown.  It looked like roasted potatoes, but they were not a bit starchy and had a bit of the cabbage family bite.  Three of us liked it (out of 5), but next time I would mix it with a starchier vegetable like sweet potato or butternut squash for depth of flavor and texture.

Mashed kohlrabi:  Instead of mashing cauliflower or rutabaga, try mashed kohlrabi.  Steam the kohlrabi until fork tender (boiling it may make the mash more soupy).  Place in a small food processor or blender or mash by hand with oil of choice (bacon drippings, butter, or olive oil would be good choices depending on your preferences and tolerances), just a bit of oil at a time until you get the consistency you want.  Add salt and pepper to flavor.  If you’re fancy, add some roasted garlic.  (I am not fancy, but I almost always make the effort to throw some garlic cloves tossed in olive oil to roast in the oven while I’m preparing a mash.  I think the roasted garlic makes “mashes” of any kind taste that much better, especially if you don’t/cant’ use butter and milk.)

Kohlrabi soup:  This uses dairy and flour, but these pesky ingredients can be easily substituted with coconut or almond milk and arrowroot powder for those with intolerances.

Asian Kohlrabi slaw:  Sesame oil and rice wine vinegar are the only flags I see for some folks with intolerances here.  If you tolerate those, this slaw looks perfect!

Kohlrabi curry:  We make curry like this a lot, but I’ve never used kohlrabi.  Next time I have some sitting around, I’ll not hesitate to throw it in the skillet.

Closing

If you’re proud that you or your family has tried a new vegetable, even if it’s not “exotic” or “out there,” leave a comment.  I’d LOVE to hear about it!  Broadening the taste buds certainly seems to help when it comes to “healthy eating.”  And look around you.  Listen to those around you.  Perhaps even look at yourself.  Humanity and society cannot afford to continue down the horrific nutritional path that is now common practice.  Processed foods HAVE to go.  Work on it.  If you don’t try, it will NEVER happen.  And trying isn’t just serving it once, and saying, “They didn’t like it.  They won’t eat it.”  That is NOT how you learned to ride a bike.

~Terri

Source:
1. (http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/09/discovering-kohlrabi-its-a-vegetable/)

Related Posts:

Jicama

Artichokes

Rutabagas

Iodine, Post 1

Iodine All Boxed Up

As far as most of the medical community is concerned, iodine has been boxed up in its cylindrical Morton’s salt-box (with that cute umbrella girl on it) and shelved–as if there is nothing further to know or learn about it.  Not so.

SaltFor iodine, I want you to be aware of three ideas:

1.  Iodine deficiency is insidiously on the rise in developed countries and putting people, particularly women and children at HUGE risk.  (Pregnant or pregnancy-eligible women need to take note.)  Many US doctors are not aware yet of this re-emerging problem.  We took care of “severe” iodine deficiency, and now years later, mild iodine deficiency is invisibly in our midst, wreaking its damage without our awareness.

2.  It’s not just the thyroid that needs iodine, but brains, immune systems, prostates, and breasts, too.  (Ahem, you got some of those, don’t you?)  I know my knowledge-base had a huge gap here regarding iodine, and therefore, I assume other medical doctors (I’ve asked a few too) and people in general may be lacking information in this area as well.

3.  There is a fear of iodine supplementation and excessive iodine intake because of the risk of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.  There are different camps of thought.  Who is right?  Who does know yet?  Debatable.  Regardless, many people aren’t even getting the bare minimum amount.

Could I be iodine deficient?

A resounding, “Yes.”  Iodine deficiency was believed to be a resolved health issue in the US, but as I research, I see an insidious re-emergence of iodine deficiency in places such as the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom.  And I also see a lack of knowledge in standard health-care providers about the re-emerging deficiency.  In pharmacy school and medical school we were taught that iodine deficiency was remedied in the United States by the implementation of iodizing salt back in the 1920s.  Job accomplished!  No more goiters!  No more cretins (infants who are severely affected by iodine deficiency)!  Celebrate and no more worries, right?  Not so fast…

Apparently, somewhere in the realm of 38% of the world’s population is still deficient in iodine.  Thirty-eight percent seems awful high to me, especially considering the nefarious effects on unborn fetuses.  Looking at a few developed countries, the United States, Australia (New Zealand included in one of the citations), and the United Kingdom, each has pockets of iodine deficient populations (1, 2, 3, 4, 5).  Increasingly, studies are showing iodine deficiency in modernized countries where iodine deficiency was presumed to be eradicated, yet I hear little hubbub about it, despite the potential gravity of the consequences!  This bothers me.  Apparently and quite sadly, iodine deficiency hasn’t yet made the consciousness of mainstream practicing medical doctors, like deficiencies of vitamin D and folate have.  Why?  I think because we rested on the laurels of “curing” severe iodine deficiency maladies.  But laurels shrivel and decay, and the world changes and moves on.  Changes in our food sources and practices greatly affect our iodine levels.

Why would a problem that we had “taken care of” Iodinebe re-emerging?

Why is iodine deficiency re-emerging?  As with almost all things, it’s due to multiple hits in our iodine intake.  Take a look!  Do any apply to you and your family?

1.  Cutting down on salt use for health and also cutting down on other iodine-rich foods.  People are following medical advice to cut down on salt, and therefore using less iodized salt.  Also, egg yolks contain some iodine, but people have been told to cut down on those, too, due to cholesterol concerns.  Seafood contains iodine, but we’re told to limit seafood due to mercury concerns.

2.  We eat out lots more and we eat more processed foods–and iodized salt is not used in these foods.  The commercial-grade salt used in processed foods and in restaurants is usually not iodized.  I repeat:  the salty foods you eat from a box or at a restaurant are (most likely) not iodized.  So none of the salt in Ruffles potato chips or from McDonald’s French fries counts toward your necessary iodine intake.

3.  Switching to sea salt and shunning iodized salt.  Sea salt does not contain enough natural iodine to prevent iodine deficiency.  It may have traces of iodine, but not nearly enough!  Sea salt, unless specifically stated to be enhanced with iodine or seaweed, does not provide you with enough iodine.  It is not a good source of iodine.

4.  Iodine deprived soils.  Some soils have always been low in iodine content (plants don’t need iodine to survive but they take it up if it’s in the soil), especially in areas away from the sea or under cover of mountain ranges.  Some soils have become depleted of iodine with use and lack of iodine restoration.  Plants grown in coastal areas should theoretically have more iodine in them, but lately there is a huge emphasis on eating locally so this could contribute to iodine deficiency, as well.

5.  Changing from iodine based dough conditioners to bromine based dough conditioners.  Iodine used to be used (specifically iodate) when making bread products.  Now a form of bromine, bromate, is used, although its use is being discouraged. (6) Not only does this provide LESS iodine, but if you look at your periodic table, you’ll see that iodine and bromine are in the same group of the periodic table (halides).  So bromine will actually compete with iodine in the body and “displace” iodine from necessary body reactions.  I will try to explain this concept in more depth later because it is so intriguing.  The same holds true for fluorine and iodine competition. (7)

6.  The iodine amount in iodized salt is not uniform.  The amount of iodine in a carton of iodized salt is not uniform.  Sometimes the top of the carton of salt has less iodine than the bottom of the carton.  Some brands do not contain as much iodine as others.  The amount of iodine in a box may wane over time.  These idiosyncrasies often have to do with the chemical properties of iodine which will allow it to “leach” out of the carton. (7)

7.  Changing dairy-farming practices.  Dairy is touted as a good source of iodine because the cows are frequently given iodine-supplemented feed and their teats are washed prior to milking with an iodine antiseptic to kill bacteria.  However farming practices are changing and dairy cattle may or may not be receiving these interventions now.  (When I bought milk and butter from the dairy farmer yesterday, I asked her about this.  Her cattle are all grass-fed and she does not use an iodine-based cleanse for the teats.  So I cannot imagine that the milk is rich in iodine that we personally buy, although it will be rich in vitamin K2 at the moment and butyric acid because it’s spring-grass eating time!)

8.  Choosing organic milk over conventional milk.  Organic milk usually has less iodine than conventional milk due to the cows being grass-fed.  (9, 10)

Points to be eventually covered in Iodine Posts

Iodine is a big topic that I don’t want to undermine, so I will break it down into several posts.  A few months ago, I thought iodine’s role was limited to prevention of goiter and keeping enough thyroid hormone around.  That is all true, but there is so much more to iodine’s story, and some parts haven’t even been unraveled yet!  Take home points that I will eventually cover in iodine posts, but probably not in this order. (If you are pregnant, able to be pregnant, or nursing, I urge you to start reading about iodine today, and don’t wait for my posts to roll out.  Here is a simple article to get you started:  Iodine Deficiency Common in Pregnancy, Docs Warn.):

  • Do I need iodine?  Absolutely.  Can’t live without it.  Function poorly with too little of it.  “But what’s it do?  What’s it for?”  That is a bit challenging to answer.  Kind of like, “What’s the sun for?”  Is it for the trees?  The flowers?  Your vitamin D production?  Your food production?  Light?  Energy?  What aspect of our lives does the sun not touch?  What aspect of our health does iodine not touch?  Whether it is through the effect of thyroid hormone, which is composed of iodine, or direct effects we’re just now learning about, the body needs iodine.  So it’s your job to make sure you know where you can get it.  I will go over where to get iodine in future posts and “what it does.”
  • Iodine deficiency is increasing for multiple reasons in developed countries, and I’ll bet money that you are affected by a couple or more of the reasons no matter what your health and food choicesNo diet group is allowed to snicker here or stick their noses in the air.  Many people are just not getting the iodine they need, and if they are, there’s a good chance that the body’s use of iodine is being interfered with by food and health choices they maybe haven’t even considered.  I will go into food and environmental factors that may be interfering with your body’s use of iodine.
  • Our childbearing women and their offspring for sure are hit VERY hard by an iodine deficiency.  Women, did your obstetrician prescribe you a prenatal vitamin with iodine in it?  If not, did your obstetrician ask you if the prenatal vitamin you chose has iodine in it?  I will go over why women of childbearing age, their fetuses, and their children NEED adequate iodine.  SADLY, these populations seem to be the most iodine deprived!
  • Prostate, breast and immune health are starting to be linked to iodine.  I will do my best to present some of this information.  Much of it is newer, not well understood, and not well accepted.
  • Iodine is important in brain health!  Low IQs, increased ADHD, and apathy have been linked to iodine deficiency.  We have studies to support this, and I will present those for your perusal.
  • Iodized salt is not the devil.  Iodine deficiency is a devil.  I know so many of you treat processed, iodized salt like the plague.  But there is a reason why The Morton Salt Company iodized their salt here in the States, and it helped immensely!  I can’t underscore that enough.  I guess I don’t really care if you shun iodized salt, I just want to make sure that no matter who or where you are, that you are aware of the body’s need for iodine and you take measures to get you and your family some good source of iodine.  For many, the simple answer may just be adding iodized salt back into their diets.  Others lean toward seaweed.  Still others rely on supplements.
  • Do I need to take high doses of iodine?  Not sure.  That might fall into the “voodoo” realm.  (Voodoo is my tongue-in-cheek word for food and health related things I see that I’m just not sure about.  I used to call diet changes “voodoo.”  I don’t anymore, but it took a lot of reading!)   Tread cautiously.  I will eventually talk about how some people use high doses of iodine and what the proposed benefits and risks of this are, particularly fibrocystic breast disease, prostate cancer, and a touch on the big topic of thyroid disease.  The turf here is largely uncharted and uncertain.

Eat well to live well.  Make sure you’re getting an iodine source.  And lastly and importantly, my blog posts are never intended for use of diagnosis, evaluation, or treatment.  Hopefully you’ll use them as stepping-stones to learn more about the topics I present and be able to have a conversation with your favorite healthcare provider.

 

~~Terri

1.  Are Australian children iodine deficient? Results of the Australian National Iodine Nutrition Study.  Li M1Eastman CJWaite KVet al.  Med J Aust. 2008 Jun 2;188(11):674.  (Abstract link.)

2.  The Prevalence and Severity of Iodine Deficiency in Australia.  December 2007.  Prepared for the Population Health Development Principal Committee of the Australian Health Ministers Advisory Committee. (Full text link.)

3.   Iodine deficiency in the U.K.: an overlooked cause of impaired neurodevelopment?  Bath SC1, Rayman MP.  Proc Nutr Soc. 2013 May;72(2):226-35. doi: 10.1017/S0029665113001006.  (Abstract link.)

4.  Iodine in Pregnancy: Is Salt Iodization Enough?  Elizabeth N. Pearce.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Jul 2008; 93(7): 2466–2468.  doi: 10.1210/jc.2008-1009  (Full text link.)

5.  http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Iodine-HealthProfessional/

6.  http://www.newsweek.com/five-controversial-food-additives-83551

7.  Iodine Nutrition: Iodine Content of Iodized Salt in the United States.  Dasgupta PK, Liu Y, Dyke JV.  Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 1315–1323. (Link to full text.)

8.  Iodine concentration of organic and conventional milk:  implications for iodine intake.  Bath SC1, Button S, Rayman MP.  Br J Nutr. 2012 Apr;107(7):935-40. doi: 10.1017/S0007114511003059. Epub 2011 Jul 5.  (Link to abstract.)

9.  Essential trace and toxic element concentrations in organic and conventional milk in NW Spain.  Rey-Crespo F1, Miranda M, López-Alonso M.  Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 May;55:513-8. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.01.040. Epub 2013 Feb 4.  (Link to abstract.)

10.  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/07/130704094630.htm

How Do You Eat That Vegetable? Artichokes.

Artichokes Vegetable Series:  When we changed our eating two years ago, I resolved to be afraid of no vegetable.  Not knowing how to cut it or cook it was NOT going to keep it out of my cart.  For a long time I’ve wanted to do a series of posts on all the different vegetables we have tried and what we do to the poor things.  May you, too, vow to try any and all vegetables in your supermarket!  Go get ’em, tiger.

Did you try a rutabaga?  Not yet?  Well, you’re going to get behind in this vegetable series!  Today we’re talking about trying an artichoke!

Just Steam ‘Em!

Now a fresh artichoke was new to me for sure!  Canned artichoke hearts?  Yes.  Artichoke and spinach dip?  Absolutely.  But never a fresh artichoke!  Once upon a time, my daughter and I  were shopping the produce aisle when the artichokes caught her young eye.  She began asking and begging me to buy some artichokes.  Here I am, The Vegetable Queen, making excuses to not buy those artichokes for her.  I don’t know what to do with them.  We may not like them.  They’ll go bad in the refrigerator before I figure out how to use them.  But my hypocrisy galled and sickened me, along with a smirking customer bystander who mockingly reassured me they were “quite easy to make…just steam them.”Steaming artichokes

So we bought those artichokes and we winged it!  I didn’t even look up how to make them or eat them.  I just steamed them like the good lady in the produce aisle said to do.  I’m going to tell you how we made them and ate them.  I don’t think it’s “the right way.”  But silly-sally on that.  The right way.  Pshaw.  Just get the blasted vegetable cooked.

I want you to know up front, artichokes are a process to eat–but in a good way.  Like a “family-popcorn-night” fun kind of way.  Not at all like broccoli or cauliflower where you slap it on the plate, get your fork out, and gobble it all up.  We have a lot of fun sitting around the kitchen table eating our artichokes as a family.  I hope you’ll give them a try!

Choose artichokes that are closed rather than open as they are fresher.  Also, don’t be afraid of purple markings which indicate that the artichoke received a bit of a frost in the field, which will make it more tender and flavorful.  (You can see those purple “blush” marks from frost on my photo up there.)

Steamed Artichokes

What you’ll need:

  • As many artichokes as you want.  I usually do one per person.
  • A mechanism to steam the artichokes.  I use a pot with a steamer basket and lid.
  • Oil of choice to dip the artichoke in.  Most people use butter, but we used olive oil.  Some use mayonnaise.
  • Salt to sprinkle or dip the artichoke in.

Wash artichokes.  Place artichokes (careful of any sharp spines that may prick you) in your steamer pot and steam for about 20-30 minutes.  You know they are done when you can pierce the base right above the stem easily with a fork or knife.  Allow to cool enough to handle and serve!

No cutting?

What?  No cutting?  No chopping off the tops?  No clipping the spines?  Nope.  Go ahead and do that if you want.  I don’t care.  But time is a premium commodity for me, and I’ll bet it is for you, too.  Since making these the first time, I have tried chopping the tops.  I noticed no difference with chopping the tops or not chopping the tops.  I have never clipped the spines on the leaves, although it looks really snazzy that way.  The spines soften up in the steaming process and cause no issues.  So I don’t clip those either.

(Note:  Most sites will tell you to cut off the top, trim the stems, pick off the lower hard petals, shear off the spiny tips of the petals, put some herbs in your steaming water, brush with lemon juice, and so on.  I know that may make them “better”–but what good is “better” if you never make them because that’s way too much work? And the kids love them this way–and so do my husband and I?)

So how do we eat them?

There are three parts to eat:

  • The creamy pulp at the end of each petal.
  • The artichoke heart.
  • Artichoke petalsThe stem, if you wish.

With an artichoke, you literally pull each petal off, one by one.  Dip the pulpy, whitish end of the petal in oil (or butter or mayonnaise) and sprinkle it with salt. Then, pull the end of the petal between your front teeth to scrape off the white, soft, creamy artichoke pulp.  Keep an empty plate in the middle of the table to put the artichoke refuse on.   Repeat this process until you get to the choke, a fuzzy-thistly topper to the artichoke heart.

The fuzzy choke (not edible) on top of the artichoke heart (deliciously edible).

The fuzzy choke (not edible) on top of the artichoke heart (deliciously edible).

Peeling the choke off of the artichoke heart.

Peeling the choke off of the artichoke heart.

At the choke part, you need to carefully separate the choke from the heart.  My kids always hand off their artichokes to me expectantly when it’s time for the choke to come off their artichoke.  I use a knife to carefully lift off the choke in one piece.  If it doesn’t separate well, I just use the knife to slice off the choke, but you lose a little of the delicious artichoke heart.  Whatever you do, don’t eat those thistly fuzzies.  They are not good.  Dip in oil and sprinkle with salt.

At this point, the great stuff is gone, but the top of the stem is often tasty and edible, too.  If not, and it’s too fibrous, your artichoke party is over.

The Lazy Answer:  I Don’t Know

Dr. Goulet, my intense and fierce general surgery staff doctor back in the day, always barked at us, “Don’t tell me ‘I don’t know.’  That’s a lazy answer.”  (Ow.  Trust me.  We learned to never say “I don’t know.”)  So don’t be lazy.  Don’t be cowardly.  It is JUST a vegetable.  Add to your vegetable repertoire!  Try artichokes, and then go back and try rutabagas!  I don’t care.  Try whatever you want, but break out of your spinach, carrot, and broccoli rut!  And don’t let “I don’t know how” ever be your ball and chain.

~~Terri

More in the “How Do You Eat That Vegetable?” series:

Rutabagas

Jicama

How Do You Eat That Vegetable? Rutabaga (Swede).

Rutabaga and Winnie the Pooh

Vegetable Series:  When we changed our eating two years ago, I resolved to be afraid of no vegetable.  Not knowing how to cut it or cook it was NOT going to keep it out of my cart.  For a long time I’ve wanted to do a series of posts on all the different vegetables we have tried and what we do to the poor things.  May you, too, vow to try any and all vegetables in your supermarket!  Go get ’em, tiger.

Ever try a recipe from this blog?  Check out this humorous story my friend shared with me.
My good friend’s sister:  “I made spaghetti squash spaghetti from your friend’s blog.  She said her kids loved it.”
My friend:  “Yeah?”
My good friend’s sister:  “It was horrible.  And she said it was one of her kids’ favorite dishes.  Mine didn’t look anything like hers.  I don’t know how that can be a favorite!”
My friend:  “Huh.”

Flash forward several months.

My good friend’s sister:  “You remember that spaghetti squash I said I made?”
My friend:  “Yeah.”
My good friend’s sister:  “Well, the rutabagas got put in the wrong spot at the store.  It was a rutabaga I made, not spaghetti squash.”

Well, that explains that bad recipe experience!  When I heard this story, I had not ever tried a rutabaga.  I decided to do Rabbit (from Winnie the Pooh) homage and prepare some rutabaga!  And for those that don’t know, that top photo shows a rutabaga, not a spaghetti squash.  (Wink.)

Rutabaga Mash

1 rutabaga
1 carrot
1/4 cup oil of choice (bacon drippings are our favorite, but olive oil would work, too)
2-4 cloves roasted garlic, depending on size of cloves
Olive oil, a drizzle
Salt and pepper to taste

1.  Get the garlic cloves a roasting!  Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (177 degrees C).  Leave the garlic cloves in their skins and just drizzle with a tiny amount of olive oil to just moisten a bit in a small oven proof bowl, pan or ramekin.  When the oven is preheated, shove the garlic in there while you prepare the rutabaga.  Roast it about 10 minutes.

2.  Wash and peel the outer skin of the rutabaga with a potato peeler.  Wash and peel the carrot while you’re at it.

3.  Chop the rutabaga into about 1-2 inch (2.54-5 cm) pieces.  It’s easiest to cut it in half and then lay the cut half flat on the cutting board before attempting to cut the rest.  On its flat side, it won’t move around on you so much.  Taste some raw rutabaga out of curiosity.  Mmm, okay.  Not bad.  Cut the carrot while you’re at the cutting board into circles about 1/2 inch (1.3cm) thick.

4.  If you haven’t removed the roasted garlic already, do so!  Set aside and let it cool while you steam the rutabaga and carrot.

5.  Steam the rutabaga and carrot together until fork tender soft.  (You could boil them, but the mash is too wet for my taste this way.  I have one of those adjustable steamer baskets that fit into any pot size.  I love it.)

6.  Transfer the steamed, fork-tender rutabaga and carrot to a food processor.

7.  Time for the garlic cloves.  Make sure the garlic cloves aren’t too hot!  Hopefully by now they’re not.  Peel the skin off of the roasted garlic.  Place the roasted garlic in the food processor, too.  (I don’t cut off the little woody nub, but you could cut it off with kitchen shears if you want.  My food processor blends it in really well.)

8.  Add 1/4 cup of melted oil/fat of choice.  (Again, we like bacon drippings best, but olive oil, tallow, palm shortening, lard, or butter would work well here.)

9.  Blend until whipped in your food processor.

10. Serve warm as a side dish!.

Normally I give a family report as to how the rest of the family liked it.  But everybody else had eaten and I was cooking for me!  I liked them.  They were soft and whipped nicely.  Not as starchy as a potato or sweet potato.  More FODMAP friendly than whipped cauliflower.  A good side dish.  Kids will be more likely to eat this if you read about Rabbit’s rutabagas in Winnie the Pooh.  Or maybe when they ask what it is, blithely say, “Oh, some mashed carrots.”  Know your crew to plan your tactics.

Give us YOUR best rutabaga treatment!  And if you haven’t tried a rutabaga, throw one in your grocery cart next trip.  It’ll  keep a long time in your fridge until you get the energy and gumption to cook it up!

~~Terri

Cut rutabaga Roasted garlic Cut rutabaga and carrot Mashed rutabaga

 

More in the “What Do You Do With That Vegetable?” series:

Arthichokes

Jicama