Butyrate Series, Part 8

Hello! I have not stopped working on and constructing butyrate posts (or other posts, like recipes and homeschooling posts), but I haven’t been able to complete them in a very timely manner. Whew! Homeschooling is hard work! However, I’m ready to start posting the next installment of my Butyrate Series. Let’s look at another way to potentially increase butyrate production in the body. . .

Warning: Writing up what I’ve learned about certain topics is simply a hobby of mine. It’s my entertainment and way to unwind from motherhood, homeschooling, and housework. When you read my writing, I’d like you to enter into an agreement with me: you read it to see what I think I’ve learned, but you do not read it with the thought that I am some expert or that I can possibly help you. I can’t help you. Supplements and treatments discussed enthusiastically on the internet can be dangerous. You, however, armed with knowledge and curiosity, can take the initiative to safely and non-ignorantly make a difference for yourself. This site is not medical advice.

Probiotics to (directly) increase butyrate

The Japanese have used a strain of Clostridium butyricum, a direct butyrate-producing bacteria, as a probiotic since about the 1970s. Savvy health professionals know butyrate best for its gut benefits (healing leaky gut, improving the mucous barrier, and improving motility), but it also has positive effects on the kidneys, brain, and metabolism–not to mention colon cancer prevention. Despite its structural simplicity, the little short chain fatty acid called butyrate truly makes a powerful, all-encompassing health difference.

Personally, my favorite way to increase butyrate in the body is NOT to take supplements– but to eat green bananas, leftover boiled cassava root, and/or leftover potatoes. Aiming to eat whole, real food is always best, but it may not be enough for select problems.  I get that. So I’m curious about all the other ways to increase butyrate.

If you have read any of my butyrate posts, you may remember that I outlined and explored four potential ways to increase the body’s butyrate levels:

  1. Eat butyrate-rich foods, like butter from grass-fed cows.
  2. Eat foods that butyrate-producing bacteria like to metabolize, particularly green bananas, green plantains, refrigerated and then reheated potatoes, beans, lentils, cassava root, and/or rice.
  3. Take butyrate supplements directly.
  4. Take probiotics which contain bacteria known to make butyrate.

Since last writing, I’ve expanded my list of potential butyrate-producing methods that I’d maybe eventually like to write about:

5. Take probiotics which support butyrate-producing bacteria in the GI tract.
6.  Consume prebiotic fibers which enhance butyrate production by GI tract bacteria.
7. Maybe we could somehow upregulate our colonic butyrate importers, such as MCT1 and SMCT1. (1, 2)

My other butyrate posts have waded through points one through three. After quite a gap in my writing due to my work raising four wonderful people in the early stages of life, let’s talk about point number four: probiotics which contain bacteria known to directly make butyrate.

Commercially available butyrate-producing probiotics

The only direct butyrate-producing bacteria (that I found) that we have available as a probiotic for human consumption is Clostridium butyricum. Quite a bit of searching turned up only two different probiotic brands to buy with Clostridium butyricum. (Have you seen any others I’ve missed?) Although both probiotics contain spores of the same species, Clostridium butyricum, they are different strains of the species.

When ingested, the bacterial spores germinate and grow in the intestinal tract, making the short chain fatty acids butyrate and acetate (6). Both strains and brands have studies behind them for various health conditions which I’ll try to discuss in this thread of posts (but not in this post today). Both probiotics can be found on Amazon.

  1. MIYAIRI 588 (CBM 588) Miyarisan Tablets
  • A one-strain probiotic of Clostridium butyricum
  • Manufactured in Japan and distributed there as an over-the-counter medicine
  • Commonly available and used in Asia
  • Available in two strengths: standard and strong. If you look at my citation number 4, you’ll find the recommended dose and much, much more about this probiotic.
  • Other listed ingredients are lactose, corn starch, talc, microcrystalline cellulose, and magnesium stearate
  • History: First isolated from feces by Dr. Chikaji Miyairi in Japan in 1933. CBM 588 is the 588th MIYAIRI strain, isolated from a soil sample in Nagano, Japan in 1963.
  • As mentioned, the probiotic is composed of spores of C. butyricum (rather than “live,” active bacteria), which are then activated in the gastrointestinal tract, making the probiotic quite shelf stable with no refrigeration required. (3, 4)

2. Advanced Orthomolecular Research Probiotic-3

  • A three-strain probiotic which includes Clostridium butyricum TO-A, Enterococcus faecium (same as Streptococcus faecalis) T-110, and Bacillus subtilis TO-A (some places I see the label with Bacillus mesentericus)
  • Only the Clostridium butyricum is the direct butyrate-producing bacteria
  • Also contains lactose, potato starch, polyvinyl alcohol, providone, and sodium stearyl fumarate
  • If I understand correctly, it contains Bio-Three probiotic formula. I believe the “TO-A” implies that the strain was produced by the TOA Pharmaceutical company in Japan (inferred from Bio-Three website). The Bio-Three formulation is used in Japan, and has studies behind it.
  • No refrigeration necessary. As with the Miyairi probiotic, the Clostridium butyricum is in the shelf-stable spore form. (5)

About Clostridia and the bacterial species Clostridium butyricum in general

When we are about one month old, different commensal species of Clostridia start to colonize our gastrointestinal (GI) tracts. They are supposed to be there and provide specific and essential benefits to us without causing harm. Since we only typically hear of the toxic Clostridial diseases like botulism, tetanus, and “C. diff.,”  it may sound strange to some of you to know you healthfully have an abundance of clostridium residing in your GI tract! If you think of Clostridia as a “bad” class of bacteria, you might find it even more disturbing and confusing to know that a known pathogen like Clostridium difficile (the culprit in C. diff pseudomembranous colitis) can be part of a normal human gut biome or can actually prevent infection. (6-9)

[Opinionated aside: The fascinating idea that a strain of C. difficile, a bacteria we think of as toxic, can be normal flora supports why I would argue with people that we have to stop oversimplifying health, stop trying to peg things, and start convincing people to do complete overhauls to their modern lifestyles and mindsets to bring the body into rhythm with itself. Don’t just take butyrate supplements and butyrate-enhancing probioitics—investigate your life, eating, habits and make impact changes. Being honest with and scrutinizing oneself often hurts for several months, but if done properly, you move past the pain, and healing and change can begin. Perfection will never be reached in this realm, but progress feels so good to a mind and body.]

Clostridium butyricum is one species of Clostridia bacteria. It is Gram-positive, rod-shaped, and anaerobic. It lives in soil and in the GI tracts of birds and mammals and can be found on the skins of potatoes, Swedes, and even in cream and yoghurt. It ferments starches to produce butyrate. When C. butyricum is exposed to a stressful environment, it can form endospores, an alternative form which allows it to survive the stressful conditions, to later reactivate when exposed to desirable conditions. It is the spores which are used in the probiotic formulation, allowing them to be shelf-stable without refrigeration for several years. (3, 4)

Some of you may have read about the clusters of clostridia and wondered about that. The Clostridia microbiological class (to which C. butyricum belongs) is exceptionally diverse, and even the commonly accepted shared characteristics, such as being rod-shaped (bacillus), anaerobic, and spore forming, have variations and exceptions to the rules. In the attempt to break down, stratify, and classify the types of Clostridia, the species C. butyricum is categorized into what is called “Cluster I Clostridia.” Cluster I Clostridia aren’t common inhabitants of the human gut. Human guts seem to mostly contain butyrate-producing bacteria from Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa rather than cluster I, but some human GI tracts do contain Clostridium butyricum, so clearly it does naturally happen. Fecal studies have found Clostridium butyricum in about 10-20% of its surveys. (6-9)

For all practical purposes, C. butyricum is a non-toxic clostridium species, but there have been reports that it can acquire some of the toxic genes from other clostridia, leading to production of poisonous toxins which may contribute to infant botulism or infant necrotizing enterocolitis. Regarding adults, one case of sepsis from Clostridium butyricum has been reported in an intravenous drug user and one case of antibiotic associated diarrhea has been reported. The complexities of toxin acquisition/production depend on the strain, the host, and interactions with other strains. Some strains of Clostridium butyricum are probiotic and beneficial and other strains show virulence. The probiotic strains mentioned are tested for non-virulence.  (6, 7)

Closing

I’ll cut off this post for today and try to clean up my next writing segment regarding specific uses of the probiotic Clostridium butyricum. I do not have it “polished up” yet, but posting this half will force my hand to get the rest of it tidied up and posted for those interested. I’d like it if you’d point out typos or mis-information to me so I can make corrections. Thanks in advance.

Please keep in mind: I don’t really care about probiotics or bacteria or food. What I really care about is that you grasp your life, your whole life, and tenaciously latch on to the things that are good and real– and that you weed out the things that are bad for you and noxious. I love life. I’ve had my share of challenges, smaller than many, bigger than some. But no matter what, I try to choose to face life HEAD ON with as much transparency as I can. And each new day, each new week, each new stress, shows me how to become more true and real.

The best to you,

Terri F

Citations:

  1. Pedro Gancalves, Fa’tima Martel. Butyrate and Colorectal Cancer: The Role of Butyrate Transport. Current Drug Metabolism. Volume 14, Issue 9, 2013.
  2. Pedro Gonçalves, Fátima Martel. Regulation of colonic epithelial butyrate transport: Focus on colorectal cancer. Biomedical Journal. Volume 1, Issue 3, July–August 2016, Pages 83-91.
  3. Wikipedia site regarding Clostridium butyricumhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clostridium_butyricum
  4. Clostridium butyricum Miyairi 588 Novel Food Application, public version: C. butyricum MIYAIRI 588 as a novel food supplement.  Probiotic food supplement. Miyarisan pharmaceutical company, LTD. https://acnfp.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/mnt/drupal_data/sources/files/multimedia/pdfs/clostridiumbutyricumdossier.pdf
  5. Bio-Three website: http://www.bio-three.com/
  6. N.Cassir, S.Benamar, B.La Scola. Clostridium butyricum: from beneficial to a new emerging pathogen. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. Volume 22, Issue 1, January 2016, Pages 37-45. Review. 
  7. Rousseau, Clotilde & Poilane, Isabelle & De Pontual, Loic & Maherault, Anne-Claire & Le Monnier, Alban & Collignon, Anne. Clostridium difficile Carriage in Healthy Infants in the Community: A Potential Reservoir for Pathogenic Strains. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2012. 55. 1209-15.
  8. CS Cummins and JL Johnson. Taxonomy of the Clostridia : Wall Composition and DNA Homologies in Clostridium butyricum and Other Butyric Acid-producing Clostridia. Journal of General Microbiology.   (197 I), 67,33-46
  9. Lopetuso LR, Scaldaferri F, Petito V, Gasbarrini A. Commensal Clostridia: leading players in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. Gut Pathogens. 2013;5:23. doi:10.1186/1757-4749-5-23.

 

33 thoughts on “Butyrate Series, Part 8

  1. Elizabeth

    Terri-
    This is so wonderful! I continue to utilize your site as a trusted resource of both humor and thorough investigation. I so appreciate the idea that there shouldn’t (and doesn’t) exist a single or even a few silver bullets for our complex bodies and lifestyles. I’ve been interested in butyrate for a long time thanks to you, but I’m still working out how it fits in, when to switch modes from getting rid of the overpopulated bacteria to REpopulating the beneficial. Thank you!

    Reply
    1. thehomeschoolingdoctor Post author

      Hi, Elizabeth! How have you been? I do the same on probiotics, switch modes periodically, that is. I have better effects from the food for butyrate than I do the probiotic route. But we’re all different, I sure do know that!

      Reply
  2. Susan

    Hi Terri – so good to hear your “voice” again!

    Would love to have you look at the site biohmhealth.com – Forbes calls them the “Tesla of Probiotics” They say that good bacteria are only half the equation and that good fungi complete the picture along with some good enzymes which will balance your gut and allow it to break down the plague which exists gumming up the works.

    On paper it sounds good – is it good science or just good marketing to sell a product?

    Also would love to hear your take on the two tests that the ubiome.com site recommends.

    Thanks for all your good work!

    Susan

    Reply
    1. thehomeschoolingdoctor Post author

      Hello, Susan–How are you? I did look at the Biohmhealth.com site a little bit. It seems to have three bacteria (a Bifido and two Lactobacilli), a fungus (Saccharomyces boulardii) and a digestive enzyme (amylase). I haven’t looked at them in synergy in one “dose,” but on the whole, I see reasons and advantages for each component. If a person wanted to get the same things via food, one could consume “live” sauerkraut for the bacteria, drink kombucha for the fungus, and eat fresh fruit for the amylase. Or they could buy each component separately as a supplement and combine. Or they could try this product. There are so many probiotic formulas! Maybe this guy, who seems to have a lot of research under his belt, is truly correct and this combination is the bomb. Or maybe it’s a bomb for a few people and who knows how to predict which few that is. (Which is frustratingly usually the case!)

      I don’t know which two tests uBiome has on its site. I have tried uBiome. I think it helps as a guide. It is not a definitive bacterial label for a person. If one takes a few tests, they’ll somewhat vary in the profiles returned. But on the whole, it is helpful. For example, I saw that I tend to live with lower Bifido counts and Lactobacilli. I saw that I could manipulate that a little bit with a good plant matter diet. But I feel like uBiome is for guidance. There are some other tests (which have changed hands and I don’t know who owns them anymore) for diagnosis, which might help a person to know more about negative yeast overgrowth, negative bacterial presence, or parasites. UBiome doesn’t do that. I like uBiome to help me know if I am manipulating my bacteria in the right direction with my lifestyle changes. Also, pairing that with my 23 and me allowed me to know that I’m a non-secretor which explains my low bifido and lacto levels.

      Does that give you food to chew on?

      Terri

      Reply
      1. Susan

        Thanks Terri – food indeed…I’ll be chewing on some sauerkraut, washing it down with kombucha and having a little fruit for dessert this very afternoon 🙂 I will also look into the 23 and me.

        Now if you could only tell me how to find a doctor like you to help me understand the tests and work with me on root causes rather than just dispensing meds! Any recommendations on how best to find a good doctor? The functional medicine doctors are few and far between and most of the integrative practitioners don’t often take insurance…any particular medical school that trains more holistically than others?

        Appreciate all you do!

        Susan

      2. thehomeschoolingdoctor Post author

        Oh, Susan. I don’t know. It is not easy at all. Word of mouth is what I do. If I hear of someone having good treatment from a doctor who seems to be embracing both conventional and alternative aspects, I ask for the doctor’s name. When I start hearing names a few times, I know that might be a good doctor to try. If I know/see an alternative provider (like an acupuncturist, etc.), then I ask them a doctor or two they like and use as a medical doctor.

        Doctors of osteopathy (DOs) are sometimes much more open to alternative ideas due to their medical school training. You’ll only recognize them by a DO after their name instead of a MD. Despite having a DO rather than an MD for their medical school training, most (not all) have completed the same residency training as medical doctors. They’re indistinguishable and working side-by-side with medical doctors at hospitals and clinics. Most (maybe I should say many, since I don’t know the actual statistics) take the same boards and do the same things. Some have lost their interest in the more diverse osteopathy side of it that they learned about in med school, but others have retained it that curiosity in alternative health.

        Did you do okay with the kombucha and sauerkraut? 🙂 I have a friend with histamine issues, and so fermented foods don’t do her well. Me, I love them! And that is what makes it hard to practice! And where a patient’s own observation is fundamental!

      3. Susan

        Thanks Terri – your input on choosing a good doc falls in line with what I’ve been thinking of doing…nice to have validation! We are in the process of moving so will have a clean slate – thankfully moving close to my sister-in-law who is a nurse and more open to alternative treatments so hoping she will get me started in right direction.

        I did not try the kombucha or sauerkraut as it was pouring cats and dogs here and I wimped out on getting wet…nice and sunny today so I have no excuse! Given your note on the histamines, I think I will slowly introduce one at a time and watch my reaction.

        Thanks again – you’re the best!

        Susan

  3. Natalie

    Thanks for your post! I am really interested in learning about butyrate. I have ulcerative proctititis and can’t seem to get it under control. I bought these BodyBio sodium butyrate supplements off Amazon and tried to make myself suppositories with the powder and cocounut oil. Didn’t go so well :-/. Anyways please let me know of any other ways you think butyrate may help this condition or any other links this is really a terrible and painful condition. Also yes homeschooling is super hard work! I applaud you! I am a teacher for students with reading disabilities at elementary school and know teaching is a lot of work! And being a mom. I have 3! God bless!

    Reply
    1. thehomeschoolingdoctor Post author

      Ah, well, you did try (the suppositories)! I remember compounding suppositories in pharmacy school. (I went to pharmacy school before med school. Fun.) We had a little metal mold for them. We got docked points if they had any ragged edges when we turned them out of the mold.

      I’m sorry about your proctitis. I think we corresponded briefly before, yes? Or was it someone else?

      I worked on the second part of the Clostridium butyricum probioitic segment today, specifically there are some studies on it and UC. I’ll get that typed up and posted as soon as I can. You’ll want to make sure and read the first part about ulcerative colitis studies. You might find it interesting. Do you know your Bifidobacterium levels by chance? Clostridium butyricum seems to help people who have low Bifido levels the most.

      Blessings on your teaching and mothering! I hope you get well and go into remission.

      Terri

      Reply
  4. MEH

    Welcome back, Terri- I have a question. I get a little confused about eating certain foods. My functional doctor as well as other health-type coaches say not to eat potatoes either sweet or white (esp) , also to avoid apples or any food that is “white”. It does not seem to matter if the food is organic or not or whether it is eaten in its natural state without adding any sugars, etc. What is you take on this trend?

    Reply
    1. thehomeschoolingdoctor Post author

      Hi, MEH! You ask great, practical questions. I do not like blanket statements to exclude real, whole foods. I have read quite a bit, and I do see some reasons to exclude potatoes, sweet potatoes, or apples from a diet for an interval of time. Maybe a person needs to go low carb. Maybe for weight loss take-off they need to cut calories drastically. Maybe they have salicylate sensitivities. Maybe they have nightshade sensitivities. Maybe they have FODMAP issues.

      However, for the lifetime of someone who tolerates carbs decently and has no intolerances/specific health concerns that mandate it, I just cannot fathom that eliminating foods like apples and potatoes is a positive lifestyle recommendation for humans. Potatoes are a nearly complete food! Apples area great source of pectin for prebiotic feeding of gut flora. I think that recommending elimination of foods like these as long-term, general advice is a trend that some of us will be rueful about in the future years.

      That’s my take. But maybe it’s just because I want my cake and want to eat it too. 😉

      Reply
      1. MEH

        Don’t know if you covered this or not, but a question regarding butter. At one time you mentioned grass fed butter as a good source of butyrate. If one makes ghee from scratch using good quality butter, does taking out the milk solids negate the benefits? I am casein allergic (although I REALLY like the taste and texture of real butter!), so at times I make ghee.

  5. Debbie

    Hi Terri,

    Just wanted to touch base to let you know I’m working through your post. I’m still eating a lot of potatoes and resistant starch powders, and hoping for the best. I hope you’re doing well, and it’s wonderful to read about butyrate.

    Reply
  6. Tim Steele

    Wow, you just won the “longest gap in a series” award for this one! I like to think that all of what “we” wrote back in 2012-2014 time frame helped to shape the current interest in gut health, pre/probiotics, etc… But, I still am not seeing much in the (mainstream media) advancement of answers to the question, “How do I fix my gut?”

    Most of the testing services, uBiome, Biohm, American Gut, etc… never really matured past a (questionable) snapshot of gut bacteria and a laundry list of foods and supplements to take to “fix” things. Big Pharma has not come up with anything as powerful as resistant starch and sauerkraut.

    And now the recent resurgence of keto and low carb will create a whole new generation of dieters with messed up guts.

    Reply
    1. thehomeschoolingdoctor Post author

      I know. It was a long gap. But it is WAY hard to get to the computer to write. Especially when I’m always hounding my kids to decrease their screen time. Then, what do I go do? Get on a screen?

      I do think that the writings of that time period shaped a lot. But I know it must continue or it’s wasted and back to old habits. Since the “quick-fix, magic-bullet” probiotic, prebiotic, and diet didn’t come along, health workers and the general population will wander away, disinterested. Never mind it cured some. Never mind it improved many. Instead of seeking out who can benefit, they’ll toss it all out: “That doesn’t work…”

      On keto, yes. I really encourage keto people I know (who are using it for weight-loss or general health) to make sure and add back in vegetables, root veggies, and fruit after they are content and stable. Play with it and find ones that satiate without causing overeating again.

      Well, anyhow. Be well, all-around!

      Reply
    2. Jo tB

      Hi Terri and Tim.
      On a facebook keto group that I follow, someone posted a comment that fits exactly in with your comment that keto will create a whole new generation of dieters with messed up guts. My thoughts had been going along those lines lately, which is why I resist going keto whole hog.

      Deficiency, deficiency, and deficiency. Copper, selenium, magnesium calcium potassium etc, etc, etc. Deficiencies are so common with keto. Folks! Just because you ditched sugars, carbs, and wheat does NOT mean you will be healthy forever, although it is probably one of the most important things you can do for health and longevity. Unfortunately it doesn’t stop there.. don’t get discouraged! It takes time to figure it all out. so many metabolic changes taking place inside you right now. minerals and vitamins can provide metabolic support in ways you can never imagine. Good luck.

      I agree wholeheartedly. No matter which diet you are on scrapping food items will lead to deficiencies and then you have to take supplements to recover. On a low calorie diet: your scrap all high calorie foods, thereby limiting your options. On a low carb diet: you scrap all high carbohydrate foods, limiting your options. On a paleo diet: you scrap all grains and don’t eat the whole animal, just the muscle meat and avoid all vegetables below ground. Etc, etc. All these implementations disrupt your gut flora as they are not getting the food they need to do their job of keeping you healthy. And unfortunately supplements don’t feed the gut bacteria.

      I didn’t add Keto as I didn’t want to have it removed, which has happened a couple of times.

      Reply
  7. katpotter

    For what a single experience is worth, I came to the AOR Probiotic 3 quite a few years ago, looking for a probiotic that wasn’t just lacto/bifido and not knowing it’s significance related to butyrate. It definitely jives well with my body, giving my BMs a natural easy-going feel. I don’t know about transit (that’s not an issue for me) but the exit is definitely benefited 🙂 So I’ve cycled in and out of using it.
    Later, learning more about butyrate, I tried the Miyarisan: nothing. I don’t know if it is something synergistic with the 3 strains in the AOR probiotic, or part of me was skeptical of the tablet form of the Miyarisan– not conducive to living creatures surviving or dispersing.
    Anyhow- my experience! AOR Probiotic 3 >>>>> Miyarisan

    Reply
    1. thehomeschoolingdoctor Post author

      I always enjoy anecdotes, actually. Medicine is an art. Observation is key. Thanks for your take on AOR and Miyarisan.

      Ha! That’s one thing I appreciated about the Miyarisan. Those little spores don’t need a refrigerator, can last for years, and can survive that stomach acid. I’ve tried Miyarisan off and on for a few years and I’ll try to comment on that in one of my posts I’m working on.

      You take care, Kat. Good to hear from you.

      Reply
  8. Jo tB

    Terri, Great post about butyrate. We have corresponded in the past about my chronic constipation and how best to combat it. I have the best results when taking inulin (from chicory root). I can tolerate 1 tablespoon in my morning smoothie, although other people have to be careful and start slow. I have also started taking a cocktail of resistant starches using Wilbur’s list as a guide to get a good variety of RSs. The first food I dropped from my diet 50 years ago was potatoes as that was diet guidlines at the time (60’s). I have started adding potatoes back in my diet, along with baking bread from ancient grains. The first one I tried was Einkorn. I made a Irish soda bread with it. Delicious! I had to really jamm on the breaks to stop me eating the whole bread straight out of the oven.

    So I am back to slowly adding back in all those foods that I scrapped from my diet decades ago. Back to square one you might say. I’m sure my gut bugs are happy chappies!!

    Reply
    1. thehomeschoolingdoctor Post author

      Thank you, Jo tB. I keep trying different things for my gut, too, so I can get off of the supplement that I take for constipation. As I’ve mentioned before here, I’m in a way better place than when I started all this jazz. Way. But I still want off of the supplement.

      Wilbur (a self-made prebiotic aficionado) once mentioned to me that if my body craved it, that’s a clue I might need it. I tucked that thought away. We were talking about oatmeal and blueberries. 🙂

      Inulin. RS cocktail. Ancient grains. And potatoes. Check. If your body and brain are saying, “Yes!”, then I’ll bet your gut bugs ARE happy chappies! (Happy chappies?!? Jo tB. Who says that? Ahahaha. Happy chappies…)

      Reply
  9. Pingback: More Butyrate Series, Part 8: Clostridium butyricum and Ulcerative Colitis, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea | The HSD

  10. Pingback: More Butyrate Series, Part 8: Clostridium butyricum to Prevent Pathogenic Infections (C. diff, E. coli, H. pylori, and Candida), Leaky Gut, and Tube Feeding Diarrhea | The HSD

  11. Pingback: More Butyrate Series, Part 8: Clostridium butyricum for the Brain, for Colon and Bladder Cancer, and for Milk Allergy | The HSD

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