Bibliography for Posts on Supplemental Yeasts (Brewer’s Yeast and Nutritional Yeast)

Welcome back to you and to me!  Please pardon my absence as I’ve been forcing myself to finish putting together this (boring) resource list for brewer’s yeast and nutritional yeast before posting anything else on The HSD.  All between erupting teeth in a nine month old.  How much easier it would be to not have to document a trail.  (Tsk.  Tsk.  That would be bad form.)  I have tried to list each resource with a brief commentary of what you can expect to find by clicking and reading the link associated with it.  Hopefully the links work, and you can find the proper page.  I also hope you understand that I do not endorse any of the pages listed here.  I simply read them as I learned about brewer’s and nutritional yeast.  In fact, some of the website pages I read (and listed) have blatantly false information.  (Tread cautiously, my diligent explorer.)  If you need help with the links or can’t find where I pulled some information for my previous posts on supplemental yeasts, just leave a comment!  I’ll see what I can do.  And now, with this resource list finally finished, I’d like to get back to blogging again!

My prior posts on “Supplemental Yeasts” are listed here.

Did I Find the Perfect Yeast?

In Search of the Perfect Brewer’s Yeast or Nutritional Yeast

Sorting Out Brewer’s Yeast and Nutritional Yeast

Brewer’s Yeast and Nutritional Yeast


A. Bekatorou et al.  Production of Food Grade Yeasts.  Food Technol. Biotechnol.  2006,  44(3) 407-415.
This is a very helpful article which provides a great overview on yeasts used for food.  It briefly states the difference between nutritional brewer’s yeast and what it calls “brewer’s type yeast” (primary grown yeast not from the brewing process).  It describes what nutritional brewer’s yeast is touted to benefit and its nutritional content.  It also discusses probiotic yeasts, yeast extracts, and more.  It is just a good overview article.
2. Heike Stier et al.  Immune-modulatory effects of dietary Yeast Beta-1, 3/1, 6-D-glucan. Nutrition Journal.  2014, 13:38.
Nutritional brewer’s yeast is touted as helping the immune system.  It is believed to be secondary to the beta-glucans contained.  This article reviews human trials regarding yeast beta-glucans on immunity, and it concludes that yeast beta-glucans support the immune system.  It is funded by the makers of a yeast product, but it also discusses the finding of other yeast products on immunity.
3.  Baker NF and Farver TB.  Failure of brewer’s yeast as a repellent to fleas on dogs.  J Am Vet Med Assoc.  1983 Jul 15, 183(2):212-4.
This is only an abstract.
4.  Offenbacher E and Pi-Sunyer F.  Beneficial Effect of Chromium-rich Yeast on Glucose Tolerance and Blood Lipids in Elderly Subjects.  Diabetes November 1980,  29 (11): 919-925.
This is only an abstract.  It supports the role of the chromium rich yeasts as well as the non-chromium rich yeast.
5.  Waszkiewicz-Robak B and Karwowska W.  Brewer’s yeast as an ingredient enhancing immunity.  Pol J Food Nutr Sci. 2004, 13/54, SI 2:  85–87.
This article supports the idea that brewer’s yeast helps with immunity, particularly via interferon gamma with an impact on viral immunity.  It also increased lymphocytes and macrophages.  It is a rat study.  It uses a specific brand.

6.  Sinai Y et al.  Enhancement of Resistance to Infectious Diseases by Oral Administration of Brewer’s Yeast.  Infect Immun.  1974 May, 9(5):  781-787.
The link takes you to where you can click and then see the full article.  It is older and scanned in.  Brewer’s yeast was given to monkeys and mice.  In monkeys, seasonal viruses and gastrointestinal viral infections were decreased.  It took two weeks before the effects “kicked in.”  In mice given the yeast for a year, there was decreased chronic infection.  The experimental mice got the disease just like the control group, but after time, they were able to “fight off” the disease much better.  Results seemed to be an effect of increased phagocytosis.
7.  Toepfer E, Mertz W, et al.  Preparation of chromium-containing material of glucose tolerance factor activity from brewer’s yeast extracts and by synthesis.  Agric Food Chem. 1977, 25 (1): 162–166.
Learn more about the type of chromium found in brewer’s yeast and how it relates to glucose tolerance factor.  (There is newer information which challenges that the chromium in brewer’s yeast is any different.)
8.  Wikipedia on Nutritional Yeast:
9.  Herbrecht and Nivoix. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fungemia: An Adverse Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii Probiotic Administration.    Clin Infect Dis. 2005,  40 (11): 1635-1637.
Discusses that there have been cases of sepsis (blood infection) from the use of Saccharomyces boulardii protiotics in critically ill patients.  Also mentions that Saccharomyces boulardii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the same species.  (Please note:  Brewer’s yeast supplement is not an intact organism and should not as such cause sepsis.  Active Brewer’s yeast could.  Theoretically, kombucha could.)
10.  Wikipedia on Saccharomyces cerevisiae:
Mentions the MAO reaction and also the antibodies of Crohn’s patients to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
11.  Hammond, JR. Genetically Modified Brewing Yeasts for the 21st Century.  Progress to Date.    Yeast.  December 1995, 11(16):  1613-1627.
12.  McKenzie, Main, et al.  Antibody to selected strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s and brewer’s yeast) and Candida albicans in Crohn’s disease. Gut 1990, 31:536-538.
13.  GOOD READ Regarding treating oral thrush (but not regarding the brewer’s yeast form):
Premanathan et al.  Treatment of oral candidiasis (thrush) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. March 2011, 3(3):  83-86.
14.  Wikipedia on Marmite, a marketed food byproduct of brewing.
15.  GOOD READ.  I like this one.  LOTS of information here.  LOTS.  Read clear through to the end for lots of pertinent information. If you get bored, start at the end and read “backward.”  I’m not sure how to cite it.  (My apologies.)  It’s a USDA report.
USDA.  Technical Evaluation Report.  Yeast:  Handling and Processing.  January 22, 2014.
16.  Minor mention of S. cerevisiae with cross-reaction symptoms in celiacs.  Could follow the sources more specifically for even more information.
Vojdani A and Tarash I.  Cross-Reaction between Gliadi nand Different Food and Tissue Antigens.  Food and Nutrition Sciences.  2013, 4(1).
17.  GOOD READ regarding vitamin B 12 and its sources.
Herbert V.  Vitamin B12:  plant sources, requirements, and assays.  Am J Clin Nutr.  1988, 48:852-8.


1.  This post discusses the effect of nutritional/brewer’s yeast on immune system of marathon runners.

2.  This post is on a site about hair growth, although it doesn’t back up the claim that brewer’s yeast specifically promotes hair growth at all.  Good overview on the differences between primary yeasts (nutritional yeasts) and true brewer’s yeast.

3.  A blog post which shares some information from Red Star regarding GMO status of their yeasts.  Although GMO sugar beets may have been used, their testing showed no GMO protein or DNA in the material which was used to grow the yeast.

4.  Discussion of yeasts on a gluten-free diet.

5.  Sources of vitamin B 12 for vegetarians.

6.  Some people may call this an “alarmist” post.  Really criticizes MSG and identifies the supplemental yeasts and yeast extracts as contributing to MSG type issues.  Sells something at the end.

7.  “Names of products that contain processed free glutamic acid (MSG)”

8.  An intense dialogue regarding glutamates/supplemental yeasts/glutamates in food naturally.

9.  Overview of nutritional yeast.

10.  Tiny little post on how brewer’s yeast is made.

11.  GOOD READ.  Learn about glutamic acid and its “umami.”  And about MSG and its history.  Not strictly scientific but lots of fascinating stuff!  (Like, did you know breast milk has free glutamic acid?)  This helps you appreciate glutamic acid/glutamates.

12.  Brewer’s yeast: chromium, diabetes, selenium/cancer, and protein source.

13.  Briefly discusses health benefits of brewer’s yeast.  Has some interesting citations on aging and telomeres.

14.  A forum post.  Beer is estrogenic.  Not related much but interesting to read about.  A tiny bit at end of first forum post about brewer’s yeast. hops estrogenic

15.  Only one paragraph in there about brewer’s yeast and Ray Peat’s grandfather “curing” his diabetes.  Some cautions stated. brewer’s yeast excerpt

16.  More Ray Peat.  Someone took excerpts of what he stated on brewer’s yeast and made it into a post.

17.  A report of a man with Saccharomyces cerevisiae overgrowth in his gut leads to chronic symptoms of intoxication with carbohydrate ingestion despite no alcohol use.

18.  Monograph type WebMD information.’s%20yeast.aspx?activeingredientid=715&activeingredientname=brewer’s%20yeast

19.  More monograph type information.

20.  A Live Strong article on difference of baker’s yeast compared to brewer’s yeast.

21.  GOOD READ.  This one just fascinates me!  How a company was making animal “probiotics” and their employees were not getting sick.  So they looked into it and started a human supplement based on what they were making.  I don’t know.  Take everything with a grain of salt, but tuck it away!

22.  A Live Strong article on the benefits and side effects of brewer’s yeast.  Also mentions the chromium content being removed from debittered brewer’s yeast.

23.  Brewer’s yeast versus nutritional yeast.

24.  Useful read:  This discusses how selenium is obtained from Saccharomyces for Garden of Life vitamins.  It is useful to help understand why certain brands are high in certain vitamins and minerals and not others.

25.  Useful read:  Another article which discusses Saccharomyces derived vitamins and minerals and how they are obtained.

26.  A pretty GOOD READ.  I mean, look at the following quote from it:  “And during the middle ages, infants were often fed the sediment from cloudy beer to keep them healthy and avoid nutritional deficiencies.”  The article itself is written for yeast in animal feed.  But the background information on yeast is very helpful.  When you open the link I provide, a registration box will appear.  There is no way to bypass it by going there from my link.  However, if you type “Yeast Products in the Feed Industry:  A Practical Guide for Feed Professionals” in your search bar, you can open up the article.  There will be an “x” to close off the “register” box then.

27.  Nice write-up on vitamin B12 from a vegan viewpoint.

28.  Glutamic Acid discussion from a company called Eden Foods

29.  “The Truth About Vitamins in Nutritional Supplements” (Robert Thiel, PhD, ND)

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