Bibliography for Posts on Supplemental Yeasts (Brewer’s Yeast and Nutritional Yeast)

Welcome back to you and to me!  Please pardon my absence as I’ve been forcing myself to finish putting together this (boring) resource list for brewer’s yeast and nutritional yeast before posting anything else on The HSD.  All between erupting teeth in a nine month old.  How much easier it would be to not have to document a trail.  (Tsk.  Tsk.  That would be bad form.)  I have tried to list each resource with a brief commentary of what you can expect to find by clicking and reading the link associated with it.  Hopefully the links work, and you can find the proper page.  I also hope you understand that I do not endorse any of the pages listed here.  I simply read them as I learned about brewer’s and nutritional yeast.  In fact, some of the website pages I read (and listed) have blatantly false information.  (Tread cautiously, my diligent explorer.)  If you need help with the links or can’t find where I pulled some information for my previous posts on supplemental yeasts, just leave a comment!  I’ll see what I can do.  And now, with this resource list finally finished, I’d like to get back to blogging again!

My prior posts on “Supplemental Yeasts” are listed here.

Did I Find the Perfect Yeast?

In Search of the Perfect Brewer’s Yeast or Nutritional Yeast

Sorting Out Brewer’s Yeast and Nutritional Yeast

Brewer’s Yeast and Nutritional Yeast

JOURNALS

1.  GOOD READ:
A. Bekatorou et al.  Production of Food Grade Yeasts.  Food Technol. Biotechnol.  2006,  44(3) 407-415.
http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/162096
This is a very helpful article which provides a great overview on yeasts used for food.  It briefly states the difference between nutritional brewer’s yeast and what it calls “brewer’s type yeast” (primary grown yeast not from the brewing process).  It describes what nutritional brewer’s yeast is touted to benefit and its nutritional content.  It also discusses probiotic yeasts, yeast extracts, and more.  It is just a good overview article.
2. Heike Stier et al.  Immune-modulatory effects of dietary Yeast Beta-1, 3/1, 6-D-glucan. Nutrition Journal.  2014, 13:38.
http://www.nutritionj.com/content/13/1/38
Nutritional brewer’s yeast is touted as helping the immune system.  It is believed to be secondary to the beta-glucans contained.  This article reviews human trials regarding yeast beta-glucans on immunity, and it concludes that yeast beta-glucans support the immune system.  It is funded by the makers of a yeast product, but it also discusses the finding of other yeast products on immunity.
3.  Baker NF and Farver TB.  Failure of brewer’s yeast as a repellent to fleas on dogs.  J Am Vet Med Assoc.  1983 Jul 15, 183(2):212-4.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6885593
This is only an abstract.
4.  Offenbacher E and Pi-Sunyer F.  Beneficial Effect of Chromium-rich Yeast on Glucose Tolerance and Blood Lipids in Elderly Subjects.  Diabetes November 1980,  29 (11): 919-925.
http://m.diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/29/11/919.abstract
This is only an abstract.  It supports the role of the chromium rich yeasts as well as the non-chromium rich yeast.
5.  Waszkiewicz-Robak B and Karwowska W.  Brewer’s yeast as an ingredient enhancing immunity.  Pol J Food Nutr Sci. 2004, 13/54, SI 2:  85–87.
 http://journal.pan.olsztyn.pl/fd.php?f=560
This article supports the idea that brewer’s yeast helps with immunity, particularly via interferon gamma with an impact on viral immunity.  It also increased lymphocytes and macrophages.  It is a rat study.  It uses a specific brand.

6.  Sinai Y et al.  Enhancement of Resistance to Infectious Diseases by Oral Administration of Brewer’s Yeast.  Infect Immun.  1974 May, 9(5):  781-787.
The link takes you to where you can click and then see the full article.  It is older and scanned in.  Brewer’s yeast was given to monkeys and mice.  In monkeys, seasonal viruses and gastrointestinal viral infections were decreased.  It took two weeks before the effects “kicked in.”  In mice given the yeast for a year, there was decreased chronic infection.  The experimental mice got the disease just like the control group, but after time, they were able to “fight off” the disease much better.  Results seemed to be an effect of increased phagocytosis.
7.  Toepfer E, Mertz W, et al.  Preparation of chromium-containing material of glucose tolerance factor activity from brewer’s yeast extracts and by synthesis.  Agric Food Chem. 1977, 25 (1): 162–166.
Learn more about the type of chromium found in brewer’s yeast and how it relates to glucose tolerance factor.  (There is newer information which challenges that the chromium in brewer’s yeast is any different.)
8.  Wikipedia on Nutritional Yeast:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutritional_yeast
9.  Herbrecht and Nivoix. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fungemia: An Adverse Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii Probiotic Administration.    Clin Infect Dis. 2005,  40 (11): 1635-1637.
Discusses that there have been cases of sepsis (blood infection) from the use of Saccharomyces boulardii protiotics in critically ill patients.  Also mentions that Saccharomyces boulardii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the same species.  (Please note:  Brewer’s yeast supplement is not an intact organism and should not as such cause sepsis.  Active Brewer’s yeast could.  Theoretically, kombucha could.)
10.  Wikipedia on Saccharomyces cerevisiae:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saccharomyces_cerevisiae
Mentions the MAO reaction and also the antibodies of Crohn’s patients to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
11.  Hammond, JR. Genetically Modified Brewing Yeasts for the 21st Century.  Progress to Date.    Yeast.  December 1995, 11(16):  1613-1627.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/yea.320111606/abstract
12.  McKenzie, Main, et al.  Antibody to selected strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s and brewer’s yeast) and Candida albicans in Crohn’s disease. Gut 1990, 31:536-538.
13.  GOOD READ Regarding treating oral thrush (but not regarding the brewer’s yeast form):
Premanathan et al.  Treatment of oral candidiasis (thrush) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. March 2011, 3(3):  83-86.
http://academicjournals.org/article/article1378986748_Premanathan%2520et%2520al.pdf
14.  Wikipedia on Marmite, a marketed food byproduct of brewing.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marmite
15.  GOOD READ.  I like this one.  LOTS of information here.  LOTS.  Read clear through to the end for lots of pertinent information. If you get bored, start at the end and read “backward.”  I’m not sure how to cite it.  (My apologies.)  It’s a USDA report.
USDA.  Technical Evaluation Report.  Yeast:  Handling and Processing.  January 22, 2014.
http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRDC5107940
16.  Minor mention of S. cerevisiae with cross-reaction symptoms in celiacs.  Could follow the sources more specifically for even more information.
Vojdani A and Tarash I.  Cross-Reaction between Gliadi nand Different Food and Tissue Antigens.  Food and Nutrition Sciences.  2013, 4(1).
http://file.scirp.org/Html/5-2700516_26626.htm
17.  GOOD READ regarding vitamin B 12 and its sources.
Herbert V.  Vitamin B12:  plant sources, requirements, and assays.  Am J Clin Nutr.  1988, 48:852-8.
http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/48/3/852.full.pdf

WEB PAGES

1.  This post discusses the effect of nutritional/brewer’s yeast on immune system of marathon runners.

http://nutritionfacts.org/2014/09/04/why-athletes-should-eat-nutritional-yeast/

2.  This post is on a site about hair growth, although it doesn’t back up the claim that brewer’s yeast specifically promotes hair growth at all.  Good overview on the differences between primary yeasts (nutritional yeasts) and true brewer’s yeast.

http://www.hairloss-reversible.com/articles/hn15.htm

3.  A blog post which shares some information from Red Star regarding GMO status of their yeasts.  Although GMO sugar beets may have been used, their testing showed no GMO protein or DNA in the material which was used to grow the yeast.

http://www.realfoodcoopnews.com/?p=3259

4.  Discussion of yeasts on a gluten-free diet.

http://www.glutenfreegigi.com/the-connection-between-celiac-disease-and-yeast-allergy/

5.  Sources of vitamin B 12 for vegetarians.

http://www.vrg.org/nutrition/b12.php

6.  Some people may call this an “alarmist” post.  Really criticizes MSG and identifies the supplemental yeasts and yeast extracts as contributing to MSG type issues.  Sells something at the end.

http://www.daystarbotanicals.com/nutritionalyeast.html

7.  “Names of products that contain processed free glutamic acid (MSG)”

http://truthinlabeling.org/hiddensources.html

8.  An intense dialogue regarding glutamates/supplemental yeasts/glutamates in food naturally.

http://www.msgmyth.com/discus/messages/3/1044.html?1344650804

9.  Overview of nutritional yeast.

http://veggieatlas.com/2012/07/23/nutritional-yeast/

10.  Tiny little post on how brewer’s yeast is made.

http://www.sharecare.com/health/herbal-supplements/how-is-brewers-yeast-made

11.  GOOD READ.  Learn about glutamic acid and its “umami.”  And about MSG and its history.  Not strictly scientific but lots of fascinating stuff!  (Like, did you know breast milk has free glutamic acid?)  This helps you appreciate glutamic acid/glutamates.

http://www.buzzfeed.com/johnmahoney/the-notorious-msgs-unlikely-formula-for-success#.usYVVkLXa

12.  Brewer’s yeast: chromium, diabetes, selenium/cancer, and protein source.

http://www.diet-and-health.net/Supplements/BrewersYeast.html

13.  Briefly discusses health benefits of brewer’s yeast.  Has some interesting citations on aging and telomeres.

http://woman.thenest.com/health-benefits-brewers-yeast-22257.html

14.  A forum post.  Beer is estrogenic.  Not related much but interesting to read about.  A tiny bit at end of first forum post about brewer’s yeast.

http://forum.prisonplanet.com/index.php?topic=117046.0 hops estrogenic

15.  Only one paragraph in there about brewer’s yeast and Ray Peat’s grandfather “curing” his diabetes.  Some cautions stated.

http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/diabetes.shtml brewer’s yeast excerpt

16.  More Ray Peat.  Someone took excerpts of what he stated on brewer’s yeast and made it into a post.

http://www.functionalps.com/blog/2013/04/25/ray-peat-phd-on-brewers-yeast/

17.  A report of a man with Saccharomyces cerevisiae overgrowth in his gut leads to chronic symptoms of intoxication with carbohydrate ingestion despite no alcohol use.

http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2013/09/17/223345977/auto-brewery-syndrome-apparently-you-can-make-beer-in-your-gut

18.  Monograph type WebMD information.

http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-715-brewer’s%20yeast.aspx?activeingredientid=715&activeingredientname=brewer’s%20yeast

19.  More monograph type information.

http://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/hn-2816000

20.  A Live Strong article on difference of baker’s yeast compared to brewer’s yeast.

http://www.livestrong.com/article/418496-what-is-the-difference-between-brewers-yeast-bakers-yeast/

21.  GOOD READ.  This one just fascinates me!  How a company was making animal “probiotics” and their employees were not getting sick.  So they looked into it and started a human supplement based on what they were making.  I don’t know.  Take everything with a grain of salt, but tuck it away!

http://www.epicorimmune.com/what_is_epicor/the-epicor-story/

22.  A Live Strong article on the benefits and side effects of brewer’s yeast.  Also mentions the chromium content being removed from debittered brewer’s yeast.

http://www.livestrong.com/article/521280-benefits-and-side-effects-of-brewers-yeast/

23.  Brewer’s yeast versus nutritional yeast.

http://www.milkandhoneyhealthfoods.com/brewers-yeast-versus-nutritional-yeast

24.  Useful read:  This discusses how selenium is obtained from Saccharomyces for Garden of Life vitamins.  It is useful to help understand why certain brands are high in certain vitamins and minerals and not others.

http://www.thevitamincode.com/RAW/RawFoodCreatedNutrients/tabid/1307/Default.aspx

25.  Useful read:  Another article which discusses Saccharomyces derived vitamins and minerals and how they are obtained.

http://www.regenerativenutrition.com/content.asp?id=49

26.  A pretty GOOD READ.  I mean, look at the following quote from it:  “And during the middle ages, infants were often fed the sediment from cloudy beer to keep them healthy and avoid nutritional deficiencies.”  The article itself is written for yeast in animal feed.  But the background information on yeast is very helpful.  When you open the link I provide, a registration box will appear.  There is no way to bypass it by going there from my link.  However, if you type “Yeast Products in the Feed Industry:  A Practical Guide for Feed Professionals” in your search bar, you can open up the article.  There will be an “x” to close off the “register” box then.

http://en.engormix.com/MA-feed-machinery/formulation/articles/yeast-products-feed-industry-t243/800-p0.htm

27.  Nice write-up on vitamin B12 from a vegan viewpoint.

http://www.veganhealth.org/b12/vegansources

28.  Glutamic Acid discussion from a company called Eden Foods

http://www.edenfoods.com/articles/view.php?articles_id=207

29.  “The Truth About Vitamins in Nutritional Supplements” (Robert Thiel, PhD, ND)

http://www.doctorsresearch.com/articles4.html

6 thoughts on “Bibliography for Posts on Supplemental Yeasts (Brewer’s Yeast and Nutritional Yeast)

  1. Elisa | blissful E

    Wow, thanks for taking the time to put all this together.
    My blog has been quiet due to erupting teeth in a 9-month-old, too! I’m hoping we are through the worst of it…

    Reply
  2. andthreetogo

    Wow! Your thoroughness never ceases to amaze me! You should take all your posts and make them into a book! I would read it and keep it handy on my shelf. 🙂 Also, while I am at it…. a recipe book too! haha

    Reply

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